GESIS - DBK - ZA2459

ZA2459: Eurobarometer 40 (Oct-Nov 1993)

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  • ZA2459_missing_v1-1-0.sps (Dataset) 3 KBytes
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  • ZA2459_bq_en.pdf (Questionnaire) 564 KBytes
  • ZA2459_bq_fr.pdf (Questionnaire) 573 KBytes
  • ZA2459_q_be-fr.pdf (Questionnaire) 2 MBytes
  • ZA2459_q_be-nl.pdf (Questionnaire) 2 MBytes
  • ZA2459_q_de-east.pdf (Questionnaire) 2 MBytes
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  • ZA2459_q_dk.pdf (Questionnaire) 1 MByte
  • ZA2459_q_es.pdf (Questionnaire) 1 MByte
  • ZA2459_q_fi.pdf (Questionnaire) 418 KBytes
  • ZA2459_q_fr.pdf (Questionnaire) 1 MByte
  • ZA2459_q_gb.pdf (Questionnaire) 2 MBytes
  • ZA2459_q_gb_ni.pdf (Questionnaire) 2 MBytes
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  • ZA2459_q_it.pdf (Questionnaire) 1 MByte
  • ZA2459_q_lu.pdf (Questionnaire) 1 MByte
  • ZA2459_q_nl.pdf (Questionnaire) 1 MByte
  • ZA2459_q_no.pdf (Questionnaire) 1 MByte
  • ZA2459_q_pt.pdf (Questionnaire) 2 MBytes


  • ZA2459_cdb.pdf (Codebook) 3 MBytes
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Eurobarometer 40 (Oct-Nov 1993) Poverty and Social Exclusion, October-November 1993
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Bibliographic Citation

Citation Citation European Commission (2012): Eurobarometer 40 (Oct-Nov 1993). INRA, Brussels. GESIS Data Archive, Cologne. ZA2459 Data file Version 1.1.0,
Study No.ZA2459
TitleEurobarometer 40 (Oct-Nov 1993)
Other Titles
  • Poverty and Social Exclusion (Subtitle)
  • Standard Eurobarometer 40 (Alternative Title)
Current Version1.1.0, 2012-7-1,
Alternate IDs Alternate IDs
  • doi:10.3886/ICPSR06360.v1, 1996-05
Date of Collection10.1993 - 28.11.1993
Principal Investigator/ Authoring Entity, Institution
  • European Commission, Brussels; DG X - Information Communication Culture Surveys Research Analyses


AbstractAttitude to unification of Europe. Poverty in personal surroundings, in the country and in Europe. Topics: Contentment with life; satisfaction with democracy; expected personal as well as general economic development; expected development of general employment situation as well as of one´s own occupational situation; personal opinion leadership and frequency of political discussions; postmaterialism; frequency of obtaining news from television, radio and newspapers; recently (or split: in the last 3 months) obtaining information about the EC and its institutions; most important sources of information about the EU; interest in European policies; judgement on one´s own extent to which informed about the EC and its institutions; interest in further information about the EC; interest in a telephone or fax hotline to ask for information about the EC; attitude to purchase of broadcast time to disseminate EC information on television; knowledge of information services of the EC; attitude to unification of Western Europe; advantageousness of EC membership of one´s own country; regret of a possible failure of the EC; judgement on the current speed of European unification as well as desired speed of unification; desired division of responsibility in selected political areas among national government or EC; feeling as a European; approval of a European Government responsible to a European Parliament; satisfaction with the functioning of democracy in the EC; attitude to the EC Commission, the Council of Ministers, the European Parliament, the European Court of Justice, the Common Market, the Treaty of Maastricht, agriculture reform, the GATT negotiations with the USA as well as the efforts of the EC to solve the Yugoslavia conflict; most important problems of the EC; decision behavior with a referendum about the Treaty of Maastricht; attitude to selected possibilities of European cooperation in monetary policy, social policy, foreign policy, combating crime, the right to vote, the economy and defense, as provided in the Maastricht Treaty; institutions responsible for providing information about the EC to the population; hope for the European market and expected advantageousness for one´s own country; intent to participate in the European Election in June 1994; party preference; controversies which could influence one´s own voting decision; judgement on the highest national court as well as the European Court of Justice; European countries visited in 1993 and checks at the border crossings experienced in this. Most important problems of the world; perceived poverty in one´s country, in the immediate vicinity as well as in the EC in general; poverty in the circle of family or friends; frequency of perception of poverty (split: social fringe groups); frequency of direct contacts with people in poverty; poverty from origins or new poverty; perceived reasons for falling into poverty (or split:social fringe group); development of poverty in the immediate vicinity in the last 10 years; perceived chance of the poor to free themselves from their situation; existence of hopeless cases; classification of selected situations in life and circumstances as indicators for the attribute poverty; parents who cannot raise their children due to poverty and people without adequate health care in one´s country; perceived injustice of society regarding the respondent; expected social mobility of one´s own children; earlier, current as well as future expected feeling of exclusion from society; demands of an up-to-date standard of living and demands currently not fulfilled (scale); perceived deprivations in the area of welfare, society and one´s own psyche; judgement on one´s own quality of life on selected situations and areas of life through judging one´s own residence, the environment, income, occupational situation, standard of living, leisure time, nutrition, demand on social services, traffic opportunities, one´s own condition of health, time available, level of education, recognition from others as well as dealing with other people; necessity of restrictions due to insufficient income; recommendation for elimination of poverty; preferred areas for the fight against poverty; attitude to provision of minimum support levels in selected areas of daily life; attitude to a minimum income; judgement on national efforts against poverty; knowledge of a legally guaranteed minimum income and of the prerequisites for entitlement; minimum income as absolute right for every one or tied to concessions and conditions; persons and institutions that should take part in the fight against poverty and social exclusion; judgement on media reporting about poverty; most important tasks of voluntary relief organizations; opinion on a joining together of those in need of help; judgement on the trade unions, employers as well as the European Community in the fight against poverty and regarding those in need; knowledge about the program of the EC against poverty; importance of actions of the European Community against poverty; consequences of the European domestic market for the gap between poor and rich; social dimension of the European domestic market; attitude to consideration of social questions in the Maastricht Accord; activities that one would take over for the benefit of poorer persons and those in need of help; personal social activities up to now; regularity of donations to relief organizations, beggars, churches or those in need known personally; behavior at the polls in the last election to the national parliament; number of children; age at completion of training; possession of selected entertainment electronics devices; unemployment within the last five years and length of this unemployment; superior function and span of control; employment in the public sector; superior function of spouse of respondent; residential status; self-classification of religiousness and frequency of weekly church attendance; general development of personal household income in the last 5 years as well as expected further development in the next five years; self-classification of standard of living of family (scale); financial problems of household in the last twelve months in paying rent, interest, water or electricity bills, obtaining food and repaying loans; getting by with household income; personal experience as homeless; possession of a telephone. The following questions were also posed in Belgium: knowledge about the Belgian presidency in the Council of Ministers; importance of this presidency for the country. The following questions were also posed in East and West Germany, the Netherlands, Belgium and France: victimization and fear of crime; general attitude to the police of the country; type of contacts with the police in the last two years; attitude to closer cooperation of the police forces, the EC member countries and attitude to EUROPOL; attitude to elimination of border checks. The following questions were also posed in France, Spain, Great Britain, Western and Eastern Germany as well as Italy: countries of Europe to which one feels the closest as well as assessment of political reliability of individual member countries of Europe; perceived changes in the European currency system; inadequacies in the European currency system or the conduct of member countries as reason for current difficulties; country responsible for perceived currency difficulties; expected influence of change in the monetary system on the economic and monetary unification of Europe intended in 1999. Also encoded were: date of interview; city size. Indices: opinion leadership; postmaterialism; EC support; occupational status; media usage; social class.
Categories Categories
  • International Institutions, Relations, Conditions
  • Social behaviour and attitudes
  • International politics and organisations
  • Political behaviour and attitudes
  • Equality, inequality and social exclusion
  • Specific social services: use and availability
  • Economic conditions and indicators
  • Economic systems and development
  • Social welfare policy
Old Topics Old Topics
  • 5.8 Social behaviour and attitudes
  • 6 Law, crime and legal systems
  • 11.2 International politics and organisation
  • 11.5 Mass political behaviour, attitudes/opinion
  • 11.6 Government, political systems and organisation
  • 13.9 Social exclusion
  • 14.1 Specific social services: use and provision
  • 17.4 Economic conditions and indicators
  • 17.6 Economic systems and development


Geographic Coverage
  • Belgium (BE)
  • Denmark (DK)
  • Germany (DE)
  • Greece (GR)
  • Spain (ES)
  • France (FR)
  • Ireland (IE)
  • Italy (IT)
  • Luxembourg (LU)
  • Netherlands (NL)
  • Portugal (PT)
  • Great Britain (GB-GBN)
  • Northern Ireland (GB-NIR)
  • Norway (NO)
  • Finland (FI)
UniversePersons 15 years old and older.
Sampling Procedure Sampling Procedure
Multi-stage stratified random sample
Mode of Collection Mode of Collection
Oral survey with standardized questionnaire
Data CollectorMarketing Unit, Bruessel; GFK Danmark, Kopenhagen; SAMPLE INSTITUT, Moelln; KEME, Athen; CIMEI, Madrid; TMO Consultants, Paris; Lansdowne Market Research, Dublin; PRAGMA, Rom; ILRES, Luxemburg; NIPO, Amsterdam; NORMA, Lissabon; NOP Corporate and Financial, London; Ulster Marketing Services, Nordirland; Nielsen Norge, Norwegen; Marketing Development Centre, Finnland INRA EUROPE, Brussels (Fieldwork co-ordination)
Date of Collection
  • 18.10.1993 - 31.10.1993 (Belgium)
  • 15.10.1993 - 3.11.1993 (Denmark)
  • 18.10.1993 - 31.10.1993 (Germany)
  • 18.10.1993 - 30.10.1993 (Greece)
  • 18.10.1993 - 2.11.1993 (Spain)
  • 18.10.1993 - 30.10.1993 (France)
  • 15.10.1993 - 31.10.1993 (Ireland (Republic))
  • 18.10.1993 - 2.11.1993 (Italy)
  • 19.10.1993 - 9.11.1993 (Luxembourg)
  • 19.10.1993 - 5.11.1993 (Netherlands)
  • 20.10.1993 - 5.11.1993 (Portugal)
  • 18.10.1993 - 1.11.1993 (Great Britain)
  • 16.10.1993 - 7.11.1993 (Northern Ireland)
  • 27.10.1993 - 28.11.1993 (Norway)
  • 10.1993 - 11.1993 (Finland)

Errata & Versions

VersionDate, Name, DOI
1.1.0 (current version)2012-7-1 Archive edition update
1.0.02010-4-13 Version number created automatically (implementation of a uniform versioning policy) (Publication Year unknown)
Errata in current version
Version changes
Changes between version 1.1.0 and it's previous version
DateSubjectDescriptionCorrection Description
2012-7-1ISOCNTRYalphanumeric country id variable2012-7-1variable added
2012-7-1VERSIONdataset version id variable2012-7-1variable added
2012-7-1v594, value 3value label incorrect 2012-7-1value label corrected
2012-7-1wght_allweighting factor for all samples not available2012-7-1weighting factor produced

Further Remarks

NotesThe total number of respondents is distributed among the individual countries as follows: Belgium 1003 cases, Denmark 1000 cases, Federal Republic of Germany (West) 1047 cases, Federal Republic of Germany (East) 1112 cases, Greece 1002 cases, Spain 1000 cases, France 1024 cases, Ireland 1000 cases, Italy 1012 cases, Luxembourg 502 cases, Netherlands 1000 cases, Portugal 1000 cases, United Kingdom 1061 cases, Northern Ireland 300 cases, Norway 1011 cases, Finland 995 cases. Earlier Eurobarometers (2-39) are archived under ZA Study Nos. 0986-0995, 1036-1039, 1206-1209, 1318-1321, 1541-1544, 1712-1715, 1750-1753, 1960-1962, 2031-2033, 2081, 2141, 2241-2243, 2291-2295, as well as 2346 and 2347. A cumulated data set of the Eurobarometers (1970-2002) with selected trend questions is archived under ZA Study No. 3521.
Number of Units: 15079
Number of Variables: 640
Data Type: -
Analysis System(s): SPSS, Stata


  • Kommission der Europäischen Gemeinschaften (Hrsg.): Eurobarometer 40: Die öffentliche Meinung in der Europäischen Gemeinschaft. Brüssel: Selbstverlag 1993.
  • Nathalie Rigaux, in liaison with the European Commission, Directorate General V: The Perception of Poverty and Social Exclusion in Europe (La perception de la pauvreté et de l´exclusion sociale en Europe). Brussels, 1994.
  • Cees van der Eijk, Mark N. Franklin Choosing Europe? The European Electorate and National Politics in the Face of Union. The University of Michigan Press. Ann Arbor, 1996 (ISBN 0-472-10357-1)
  • European Journal of Political Research. Special Issue: Political Representation in the European Parliament. Volume 32, No. 2 (October 1997)
  • European Commission: Europeans and the European Court of Justice in 1992. Results of Eurobarometer surveys no. 38.0 and 40. Brussels, 1994
Relevant full texts
from SSOAR (automatically assigned)


Research Data Centre
  •  EB - Standard and Special Eurobarometer
    Since the early nineteen seventies the European Commission´s “Standard and Special Eurobarometer” are regularly monitoring the public opinion in the European Union member countries at times. Interviews are conducted face-to-face, in each spring and each autumn, at all times based on new samples with a size 1000 respondents per country. Separate samples are drawn for Northern Ireland and East Germany. After the EU enlargement in 2004, remaining and new Candidate Countries are also regularly included in selected surveys. The Standard Eurobarometer modules ask for attitudes towards European unification, institutions and policies, complemented by measurements for general socio-political orientations, as well as by respondent and household demographics. Intermittently special Eurobarometer modules extensively address topics, such as environment, science and technology, health or family issues, social or ethnic exclusion, quality of life etc. The “European Communities Studies” 1970-1973 can be considered forerunner studies, as well the “Attitudes towards Europe” from 1962.