GESIS - DBK - ZA2830

ZA2830: Eurobarometer 44.3OVR (Feb-Apr 1996)

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  • ZA2830_missing_v1-0-1.sps (Dataset) 5 KBytes
  • ZA2830_v1-0-1.dta (Dataset Stata) 15 MBytes
  • ZA2830_v1-0-1.por (Dataset SPSS Portable) 26 MBytes
  • ZA2830_v1-0-1.sav (Dataset SPSS) 16 MBytes


  • ZA2830_bq_en.pdf (Questionnaire) 835 KBytes
  • ZA2830_bq_fr.pdf (Questionnaire) 866 KBytes


  • ZA2830_cdb.pdf (Codebook) 3 MBytes
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Eurobarometer 44.3OVR (Feb-Apr 1996) Employment, Unemployment, and Gender Equality
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Bibliographic Citation

Citation Citation European Commission (2012): Eurobarometer 44.3OVR (Feb-Apr 1996). INRA, Brussels. GESIS Data Archive, Cologne. ZA2830 Data file Version 1.0.1,
Study No.ZA2830
TitleEurobarometer 44.3OVR (Feb-Apr 1996)
Other Titles
  • Employment, Unemployment, and Gender Equality (Subtitle)
Current Version1.0.1, 2012-10-1,
Alternate IDs Alternate IDs
  • doi:10.3886/ICPSR02443.v1, 2002-09
Date of Collection27.02.1996 - 3.04.1996
Principal Investigator/ Authoring Entity, Institution
  • European Commission, Brussels; DG X - Information Communication Culture Surveys Research Analyses


AbstractEmployment and unemployment. Gender equality. Topics: Standard Eurobarometer measures such as whether they attempted to persuade others close to them to share their views on subjects they held strong opinions about, whether they discussed political matters, and how they viewed the need for societal change. Respondents who were employed or self-employed were asked questions concerning their job titles, the ratio of women to men holding the same title, number of people employed at their workplaces, how long they were continuously employed/self-employed, how they found out about their jobs, the type of organizations for which they worked, the number of hours worked, job satisfaction, the type of communication equipment used, and the circumstances under which they would reduce their hours or take unpaid leave. Employed and self-employed respondents were asked about the pay, training, skill level, variety, amount, pressure, and interest involved in their work. They also compared their jobs with jobs they were doing five years ago. Non-self-employed workers provided additional information regarding their level of involvement in decisions that affected their jobs, existence of promotional opportunities, indices of pay raises or dismissal, likelihood of leaving their jobs, and commitment to their current employers. Questions posed to unemployed respondents covered how long they had been unemployed, their former occupation, reasons for leaving their last position, and whether they had received any compensation. They were also asked if they were looking for a job, what approaches they used to find a job, the amount of time spent looking for a job, problems in trying to find a job, whether they would consider a position requiring different skills, a lower level of skills, worse physical conditions, or different hours, or if they would relocate. These respondents also indicated whether they had experienced boredom, depression, family tensions, loss of self-confidence, not enough money, increased difficulty in rearing children, or lack of contact with people as a result of being unemployed. All respondents were asked questions concerning gender equality. Respondents were asked to assess the current work situation for women with respect to wages, job security, promotional opportunities, and the number and variety of jobs available. Respondents were also asked to evaluate reasons why women less often held positions of responsibility and to prioritize areas of action to be taken to remedy existing inequalities. Respondents also rated the impact of womens working on the well-being of men, children, women, families, and couples. Demography: Gender, age, nationality, marital status, occupation, income, left-right political self-placement, age at completion of education, number of people in household, number of children under 15 in household, subjective size of community, and region of residence.
Categories Categories
  • International Institutions, Relations, Conditions
  • Working conditions
  • Unemployment
  • Employment
  • Equality, inequality and social exclusion
  • Labour and employment policy
Old Topics Old Topics
  • 1.1 Working conditions
  • 1.3 Unemployment
  • 1.5 Employment
  • 13.4 Gender and gender roles


Geographic Coverage
  • Belgium (BE)
  • Denmark (DK)
  • Germany (DE)
  • Greece (GR)
  • Italy (IT)
  • Spain (ES)
  • France (FR)
  • Ireland (IE)
  • Luxembourg (LU)
  • Netherlands (NL)
  • Portugal (PT)
  • Great Britain (GB-GBN)
  • Northern Ireland (GB-NIR)
  • Austria (AT)
  • Sweden (SE)
  • Finland (FI)
UniversePersons 15 years old and older
Sampling Procedure Sampling Procedure
The basic sample design applied in all member states is a multi-stage, random (probability) one of persons aged 15 and over, residing in each of the member states. In each EU country a number of sampling points was drawn with probability proportional to population size (for a total coverage of the country) and to population density. Sampling points were drawn systematically from all administrative regional units after stratification by individual unit and type of area. They thus represent the whole territory of the Member States according to the EUROSTAT-NUTS II (or equivalent) and according to the distribution of the national, resident population in terms of metropolitan, urban, and rural areas. In each of the selected sampling points a starting address was drawn at random. Further addresses were selected as every Nth address by standard random route procedures. In each household the respondent was drawn at random. During the fieldwork for Eurobarometer 44.3, an oversample (approximately 300 per country) of unemployed persons and housewives/househusbands, aged 15 years and over, was added to the basic sample and subsequently administered an additional set of questions. Students and retired were excluded from the oversample. Also, there was no oversample for Luxembourg and Northern Ireland, and 14 cases from Luxembourg and 2 cases from Northern Ireland were dropped.
Mode of Collection Mode of Collection
All interviews were face-to-face in people`s homes and in the appropriate national language
Data CollectorMarketing Unit, Brssel; GFK Danmark, Kopenhagen; INRA Deutschland, Mlln; KEME, Athen; CIMEI, Madrid; TMO, Paris; Lansdowne Market Research, Dublin; PRAGMA, Rom; ILRES, Luxemburg; NIPO, Amsterdam; METRIS, Lissabon; NOP Corporate and Financial, London; TEMO AB, Solna, Schweden; Marketing Development Center, Espoo, Finnland; SPECTRA, Linz, sterreich; INRA EUROPE, Brssel (Internationale Koordination)
Date of Collection
  • 4.03.1996 - 25.03.1996 (Belgium)
  • 10.03.1996 - 29.03.1996 (Denmark)
  • 5.03.1996 - 25.03.1996 (Germany)
  • 6.03.1996 - 25.03.1996 (Greece)
  • 7.03.1996 - 22.03.1996 (Italy)
  • 5.03.1996 - 25.03.1996 (Spain)
  • 6.03.1996 - 25.03.1996 (France)
  • 6.03.1996 - 3.04.1996 (Ireland (Republic))
  • 1.03.1996 - 28.03.1996 (Luxembourg)
  • 8.03.1996 - 1.04.1996 (Netherlands)
  • 9.03.1996 - 28.03.1996 (Portugal)
  • 27.02.1996 - 24.03.1996 (Great Britain)
  • 10.03.1996 - 29.03.1996 (Northern Ireland)
  • 7.03.1996 - 29.03.1996 (Austria)
  • 8.03.1996 - 29.03.1996 (Sweden)
  • 5.03.1996 - 29.03.1996 (Finland)

Errata & Versions

VersionDate, Name, DOI
1.0.1 (current version)2012-10-1 Archive edition update
1.0.02010-4-13 Version number created automatically (implementation of a uniform versioning policy) (Publication Year unknown)
Errata in current version
2014-12-12Income (V529)Documentation for DENMARK is not correct. Should read INCOME PER YEAR.
Version changes
Changes between version 1.0.1 and it's previous version
DateSubjectDescriptionCorrection Description
2011-7-1ISOCNTRYalphanumeric country id variable2011-7-1variable added
2011-7-1VERSIONdataset version id variable2011-7-1variable added

Further Remarks

NotesINRA calculated response rates as the percentage of the ´total number of completed interviews´ over the ´total number of effective contacts´ (in the addition of three visits, if needed). The response rate estimates considerably vary between countries (basic sample/oversample): BE: 56%/45%; DK: 40%/28%; DE-W: 71%/76%; DE-E: 69%/80%; GR: 46%/56%; IT: 43%/54%; ES: 77%/86%; FR: 80%/77%; IE: 54%/71%; LU: 70%/-; NL: 24%/51%; PT: 61%/49%; GB-GBN: 53%/49%; GB-NIR: 59%/-; AT: 75%/86%; SE: 52%/NA; FI: 42%/71% (Source: Duncan Gallie: Employment, Unemployment and the Quality of life: The Employment in Europe Survey 1996. University of Oxford, June 1997.) Basic sample + unemployed OVeRsample (Q.1 to Q.110). For detailed weighting information see the basic English questionnaire.
Number of Units: 20679
Number of Variables: 560
Data Type: -
Analysis System(s): SPSS, Stata


  • Reif, Karlheinz, and Ronald Inglehart (eds.): EURO-BAROMETER: THE DYNAMICS OF EUROPEAN OPINION. London: MacMillan, 1991.
  • Duncan Gallie (on behalf of the European Commission): Employment, Unemployment and the Quality of life: The Employment in Europe Survey 1996. University of Oxford, June 1997.
  • European Commission, Directorate General for Employment, Industrial Relation and social Affairs: Women and Men in Europe and equal Opportunities - Results of an Opinion Poll. Brussels, March 1997.
  • European Commission: Equal opportunities for women and men in Europe?. Brussels, January 1999.
Relevant full texts
from SSOAR (automatically assigned)


Research Data Centre
  •  EB - Standard and Special Eurobarometer
    Since the early nineteen seventies the European Commission´s “Standard and Special Eurobarometer” are regularly monitoring the public opinion in the European Union member countries at times. Interviews are conducted face-to-face, in each spring and each autumn, at all times based on new samples with a size 1000 respondents per country. Separate samples are drawn for Northern Ireland and East Germany. After the EU enlargement in 2004, remaining and new Candidate Countries are also regularly included in selected surveys. The Standard Eurobarometer modules ask for attitudes towards European unification, institutions and policies, complemented by measurements for general socio-political orientations, as well as by respondent and household demographics. Intermittently special Eurobarometer modules extensively address topics, such as environment, science and technology, health or family issues, social or ethnic exclusion, quality of life etc. The “European Communities Studies” 1970-1973 can be considered forerunner studies, as well the “Attitudes towards Europe” from 1962.