GESIS - DBK - ZA6941

ZA6941: Programme for the International Assessment of Adult Competencies (PIAAC), International Pilot Study on Non-Cognitive Skills

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List of Files


  • ZA6941_PIAAC_DataDistributionContract.pdf (User Contract) 167 KBytes
  • ZA6941_PIAAC_Datennutzungsvertrag.pdf (User Contract) 164 KBytes


  • ZA6941_bq.pdf (Questionnaire) 2 MBytes
  • ZA6941_items_translations.xlsx (Questionnaire) 107 KBytes
  • ZA6941_q_de.pdf (Questionnaire) 2 MBytes
  • ZA6941_q_es.pdf (Questionnaire) 2 MBytes
  • ZA6941_q_fr.pdf (Questionnaire) 2 MBytes
  • ZA6941_q_jp.pdf (Questionnaire) 2 MBytes
  • ZA6941_q_pl.pdf (Questionnaire) 2 MBytes


  • ZA6941_cod.xlsx (Codebook) 43 KBytes

Other Documents

  • ZA6941_sd.pdf (Study Description) 452 KBytes
Availability Availability C - Data and documents are only released for academic research and teaching after the data depositor’s written authorization. For this purpose the Data Archive obtains a written permission with specification of the user and the analysis intention.
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Bibliographic Citation

Citation Citation Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development (OECD) (2018): Programme for the International Assessment of Adult Competencies (PIAAC), International Pilot Study on Non-Cognitive Skills. GESIS Data Archive, Cologne. ZA6941 Data file Version 1.0.0,
Study No.ZA6941
TitleProgramme for the International Assessment of Adult Competencies (PIAAC), International Pilot Study on Non-Cognitive Skills
Current Version1.0.0, 2018-8-16,
Date of Collection30.01.2017 - 06.03.2017
Principal Investigator/ Authoring Entity, Institution
  • Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development (OECD)
Contributor, Institution, Role
  • GESIS - Distributor
  • GESIS - HostingInstitution


AbstractThis online survey was designed to test the measurement properties of nine personality scales – the Big Five, Traditionalism, Self-Control, Self-Efficacy, Honesty/Integrity, Socio-Emotional skills, Intellectual Curiosity, Job Orientation Preferences and Vocational Interests. Eight of these nine scales are existing scales (or combinations of scales) available for use in public domain. The scale assessing socio-emotional skills was developed by an expert group . The full formulations of items in all scales are presented in the attached excel file. Design of the online survey The online survey was designed with following objectives: 1) Testing the measurement characteristics of selected scales; 2) Testing the cross national comparability of selected scales. Background questionnaire In order to examine the analytic potential (and policy relevance) of the selected personality measures, the survey included a number of socio-demographic and economic and personal wellbeing indicators as well as a short cognitive ability test. In particular, it includes: Socio-demographic characteristics: Gender, age, country of birth, mother tongue, marital status, educational attainment, and parental education. Economic and wellbeing indicators: Broad activity status, occupational status, subjective health, social trust, life satisfaction, and personal wellbeing. Quality control questions: In order to check the quality of the response data, the survey included three quality control items placed within the Big Five, Self-Control, and Socio-Emotional skills scales. These were later used, along other indicators of data quality, for the creation of an overall quality control indicator and removal of poor quality responses.


Geographic Coverage
  • Germany (DE)
  • Spain (ES)
  • France (FR)
  • Japan (JP)
  • Poland (PL)
UniversePersons between 16 and 65 years in Germany, Spain, France, Japan and Poland
Analysis Unit Analysis Unit
  • Individual
Sampling Procedure Sampling Procedure
  • Non-probability: Quota
Non-probability Sample: Quota Sample 7436 responses were collected, around 1500 by country. Out of these, 6.6% respondents were excluded after failing on various quality control criteria - age, testing time, ability test, consistency of answers, answers on quality control questions, incomplete responses. An aggregate quality indicator was constructed based on these criteria and respondents with poor response quality were removed from the datasets. Thus, in the final sample there are 1.314 French respondents, 1.240 Japanese respondents, 1.380 Spanish respondents, 1.538 German respondents and 1.452 Polish respondents. The sample was a convenience sample and is therefore unrepresentative of the populations in the countries concerned. Quotas were used to ensure a gender and age distribution that broadly represented national´s census data. Criteria for quality control and exclusion Quality control was undertaken using the following 8 criteria: - Testing time - excluding those that answered in less than 6 minutes and marking those who had finished in between 6-8 minutes (1 point); - Age - excluding those younger than 16 and older than 65; - Ability test results (2 criteria) - marking those that repeatedly answered “don’t know” or that did not have single correct answer (1 point for each of the two criteria); - Quality control items (3 criteria) - marking those that failed one, two or all three quality control answers (1 point for each failed quality control item); - Consistency in answering – marking those that gave the same answers to four pairs of opposing/reverse questions (e.g. “Is neat” vs. “Is messy”; or “Is talkative” vs. “Tends to be quiet”). In the end an overall quality indicator (named ´quality´) was compiled combining all these individual criteria. Non-complete cases as well as duplicates were excluded from the database.
Mode of Collection Mode of Collection
  • Self-administered questionnaire: Web-based (CAWI)
Self-administered questionnaire: CAWI (Computer-Assisted Web Interview) Web survey, entire survey was conducted online. The survey was implemented using Survey Monkey platform.
Time Method Time Method
  • Cross-section
Kind of Data Kind of Data
  • Numeric
Data CollectorCint company
Date of Collection
  • 30.01.2017 - 06.03.2017

Errata & Versions

VersionDate, Name, DOI
1.0.0 (current version)2018-8-16 first archive edition
Errata in current version
Version changes

Further Remarks

NotesSurvey unit: teenagers; adults### References: • Beierlein C., Kemper C. J., Kovaleva A., & Rammstedt, B. (2013). Kurzskala zur Erfassung allgemeiner Selbstwirksamkeitserwartungen (ASKU). Short Scale for Measuring General Self-efficacy Beliefs (ASKU). mda: Methoden, Daten, Analysen, 7(2), 251-278. • Chernyshenko, O. S. (2002). Applications of ideal point approaches to scale construction and scoring in personality measurement: The development of a six-faceted measure of conscientiousness. University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign. • De Vries, R. E. (2013). The 24-item brief HEXACO inventory (BHI). Journal of Research in Personality, 47(6), 871-880. • Romppel, M., Herrmann-Lingen, C., Wachter, R., Edelmann, F., Düngen, H. D., Pieske, B., & Grande, G. (2013). A short form of the General Self-Efficacy Scale (GSE-6): Development, psychometric properties and validity in an intercultural non-clinical sample and a sample of patients at risk for heart failure. GMS Psycho-Social-Medicine, 10. • Soto, C. J., & John, O. P. (2017). The next Big Five Inventory (BFI-2): Developing and assessing a hierarchical model with 15 facets to enhance bandwidth, fidelity, and predictive power. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 113, 117-143. • Soto, C. J., & John, O. P. (2017). Short and extra-short forms of the Big Five Inventory–2: The BFI-2-S and BFI-2-XS. Journal of Research in Personality, 68, 69-81. • Schwarzer, R., & Jerusalem, M. (1995). Generalized Self-Efficacy scale. In J. Weinman, S. Wright, & M. Johnston, Measures in health psychology: A user’s portfolio. Causal and control beliefs (pp. 35-37). Windsor, UK: NFER-Nelson. Members of expert group: • Daniel Danner (GESIS – Leibniz Institute for the Social Sciences, Germany) • Beatrice Rammstedt (GESIS – Leibniz Institute for the Social Sciences, Germany) • Brent Roberts (University of Illinois, USA) • Manfred Schmitt (University of Landau, Germany) • Fons van de Vijver (Tilburg University, Netherlands) • Richard Roberts (Professional Examination Service, USA) • Susanne Weis (University of Landau, Germany)
Number of Units: 6924
Number of Variables: 221
Analysis System(s): SPSS, Stata


  • Kankaraš, M. (2017). Personality matters. OECD Education Working Papers No. 157. Paris: OECD Publishing
Relevant full texts
from SSOAR (automatically assigned)


Research Data Centre
  • PIAAC - Programme for the International Assessment of Adult Competencies