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ZA2800: ALLBUS/GGSS 1996 (Allgemeine Bevölkerungsumfrage der Sozialwissenschaften/German General Social Survey 1996)

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ZACAT online analysis and search in variable level documentation:
ALLBUS 1996, Allgemeine Bevölkerungsumfrage der Sozialwissenschaften
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Bibliographic Citation

Citation Citation GESIS - Leibniz Institute for the Social Sciences (2014): ALLBUS/GGSS 1996 (Allgemeine Bevölkerungsumfrage der Sozialwissenschaften/German General Social Survey 1996). GESIS Data Archive, Cologne. ZA2800 Data file Version 2.0.0,
Study No.ZA2800
TitleALLBUS/GGSS 1996 (Allgemeine Bevölkerungsumfrage der Sozialwissenschaften/German General Social Survey 1996)
Current Version2.0.0, 2014-4-14,
Date of Collection03.1996 - 06.1996
Principal Investigator/ Authoring Entity, Institution
  • Allerbeck, Klaus R. - Universität Frankfurt
  • Allmendinger, Jutta - Universität München
  • Bürklin, Wilhelm - Universität Potsdam
  • Kiefer, Marie-Luise - Universität Wien
  • Müller, Walter - Universität Mannheim
  • Opp, Karl-Dieter - Universität Leipzig
  • Scheuch, Erwin K. - Universität Köln


AbstractSocial monitoring of trends in attitudes, behavior, and societal change in the Federal Republic of Germany. The main topics in 1996 are: 1.) Attitudes towards ethnic groups in Germany and to migration 2.) Citizenship and country of origin 3.)Attitudes towards marriage, family, and partnership 4.) Other topics 5.) ALLBUS-Demography 6.) Data on the interview (paradata) 7.) Role of government III (ISSP 1996) 8.) Added value Topics: 1.) Attitudes towards ethnic groups in Germany and to migration: perceived consequences of presence of foreigners in Germany; attitude towards the influx of eastern European ethnic Germans, asylum seekers, labor from EC or non-EC countries; ranking in terms of importance of different citizenship requirements; perception and evaluation of discriminatory behavior towards foreigners; opinion on dual citizenship and on equality under the law for foreigners; indicators for social distance to ethnic minorities and foreigners; perceived differences in lifestyle; items on anti-Semitism; support for the teaching of Islam in public schools; estimation of proportion of foreigners in East and West Germany; percentage of foreigners in local county (Kreis). 2.) Nationality and country of origin: first, second, and third citizenship of respondent and spouse or partner; original citizenship of respondent and of spouse or partner; country of origin of respondent and of respondent´s parents and grandparents; length of stay in Germany. 3.) Attitudes towards marriage, family, and partnership: family as a prerequisite for happiness; marriage in case of steady partnership; attitudes towards the role of women in the family; relative importance of selected educational goals for a child. 4.) Other topics: attitudes towards abortion; general trust in fellow men and politicians; social pessimism and orientation towards the future (anomia); reasons for being proud to be a German; authoritarianism; self-assessment of social class; fair share in the standard of living; political interest; questions on postmaterialism (importance of law and order, fighting rising prices, free expression of opinions, and influence on governmental decisions); self-placement on a left-right continuum; assessment of economic situations; recall of past vote in federal elections; reasons for non-voting; fear of unemployment or loss of business. 5.) ALLBUS-Demography: Details about the respondent: gender; month and year of birth, age; geographical origin and citizenship; place of residence (federal state, administrative region, size of municipality, BIK-type of municipality) and length of residence; religious denomination, frequency of church attendance; voting intention (Sonntagsfrage); vote in last election; general education, vocational training; employment status; details about current occupation, affiliation to public service, supervisory functions; length of unemployment; date of termination of full- or part-time employment; details about former occupation; respondent´s income; marital status. Details about respondent´s current spouse: general education, vocational training; employment status; details about current occupation; current and former citizenships. Details about respondent´s steady extra-marital partner: common household; month and year of birth, age; geographical origin and citizenship; general education, vocational training; employment status; details about current occupation. Details about respondent´s parents: parent´s and grandparent´s country of origin; general education of father and mother; father´s occupation. Composition of household: size of household; household income; type of dwelling; telephone. Details about household members: relation to respondent; gender; month and year of birth, age; marital status. Respondent´s current memberships (Deutscher Gewerkschaftsbund (DGB, blue-collar union), Deutsche Angestelltengewerkschaft (DAG, white-collar union), other trade union, political party). 6.) Data on the interview (paradata): date of interview; time and length of interview; presence of other people during the interview; respondent´s willingness to answer questions; evaluation of reliability of respondent answers; gender, age, and general education of the interviewer. 7.) Role of government III (ISSP): attitudes towards the observance of laws; attitudes towards different forms of protest against the government; willingness to participate and actual participation in public protest activities or demonstrations against the government; opinions on freedom of speech for extremists; attitude towards a miscarriage of justice; perceived threats in the private life through governmental data collections and computer networks; assessment of social responsibility of the state in relation to job creation and just distribution of incomes; attitudes towards economically oriented government measures; attitudes towards an increase of expenditures of the government for environmental protection, health service, police, the educational system, defense, pensions, unemployment benefit, culture; assessment of the power of the trade unions, private enterprise and the state; assessment of state responsibility for socio-political tasks (social support for the elderly, students, housing provision, job creation; economic growth through assistance to industry, price stability, etc.); political interest; overall attitude towards politics and the political system (subjective assessment of political influence (political efficacy), level of political awareness, politicians and election promises); lower taxes vs. more extensive social services; assessment of fairness of tax levels for different income groups; attitudes towards privatization or nationalization of selected public institutions; preferences for enactment of environmental regulations by the Federal parliament or the EU. 8.) Added value: Inglehart-index; family typology, classification of private households (according to Porst and Funk); International Standard Classification of Occupations (ISCO 1968, 1988); class position (according to Goldthorpe); occupational prestige (according to Treiman); magnitude prestige (according to Wegener); occupational meta-classification (according to Terwey); weights.
Categories Categories
  • Society, Culture
Topics Topics
  • 2.2 Migration
  • 5.4 Cultural and national identity
  • 5.6 Social conditions and indicators
  • 5.8 Social behaviour and attitudes
  • 6 Law, crime and legal systems
  • 11.5 Mass political behaviour, attitudes/opinion
  • 11.6 Government, political systems and organisation
  • 13 Social stratification and groupings
  • 17.5 Economic policy


Geographic Coverage
  • Germany (DE)
UniverseAll persons (German and non-German) who resided in private households and were born before 1 January 1978
Analysis Unit Analysis Unit
  • Individual
Sampling Procedure Sampling Procedure
  • Probability: Stratified: Disproportional
  • Probability: Multistage
Sample of individuals: Two stage disproportionate random sample in western Germany (incl. West Berlin) and eastern Germany (incl. East Berlin). In the first sampling stage, 104 municipalities (Gemeinde) were selected in West Germany and 47 in East Germany with a probability proportional to their total number of adult residents; in the second stage, 40 persons (in five large cities a corresponding multiple thereof) were selected at random from the municipal registers of residents. Targeted individuals who did not have adequate knowledge of German to conduct the interview were treated as systematic unit non-responses.
Mode of Collection Mode of Collection
  • Face-to-face interview: Paper-and-pencil (PAPI)
  • Self-administered questionnaire: Paper
Personal interview with standardized questionnaire (PAPI - Paper and Pencil Interviewing), additional self-completion questionnaire (drop off) for ISSP.
Time Method Time Method
  • Cross-section
Kind of Data Kind of Data
  • Numeric
Date of Collection
  • 03.1996 - 06.1996

Errata & Versions

VersionDate, Name, DOI
2.0.0 (current version)2014-4-14 fit for ZACAT
1.0.02010-4-13 Version number created automatically (implementation of a uniform versioning policy) (Publication Year unknown)
Errata in current version
2016-5-31Stata: V159, V160, V175, V176, V207, V208, V241, V242, V255, V256, V334, V337For Stata data sets: Unlabeled missing values with decimal places have to be recoded to integer values and labels have to be added. For correction of the Stata dataset a patch was provided together with the Stata dataset. Please download
Version changes

Further Remarks

NotesRespondents from the area of the new federal states are oversampled so that analysts can obtain a more detailed picture of this portion of the population. A second version of this data set with a shortened demography module is available as ALLBUScompact 1996 (ZA No. 3718).
Number of Units: 3518
Number of Variables: 437
Data Type: -
Analysis System(s): SPSS, Stata


  • Braun, Michael; Mohler, Peter Ph.: Die Allgemeine Bevölkerungsumfrage der Sozialwissenschaften (ALLBUS). Rückblick und Ausblick in die neunziger Jahre. In: ZUMA-Nachrichten 29, 1991, S. 7-28.
  • Terwey, Michael: ALLBUS: Das Programm und Erweiterungen des bestehenden Angebots. In: ZA-Information 42, 1998, S. 33-43.
  • Terwey, Michael: ALLBUS: A German General Social Survey. Schmollers Jahrbuch 120, 2000, S. 151-158.
  • Terwey, Michael: Zum aktuellen Wandel im Zugriff auf ALLBUS-Materialien und zur ALLBUS-Nutzung in Publikationen. In: ZA-Information 53, 2003, S. 195-202.
  • Veröffentlichungsreihe "Blickpunkt Gesellschaft": Müller, Walter; Mohler, Peter Ph.; Erbslöh, Barbara; Wasmer, Martina (Hrsg.): Blickpunkt Gesellschaft: Einstellungen und Verhalten der Bundesbürger. Opladen: Westdeutscher Verlag 1990.
  • Mohler, Peter Ph.; Bandilla, Wolfgang (Hrsg.): Blickpunkt Gesellschaft: 2. Einstellungen und Verhalten der Bundesbürger in Ost und West. Opladen: Westdeutscher Verlag 1992.
  • Braun, Michael; Mohler, Peter Ph. (Hrsg.): Blickpunkt Gesellschaft: 3. Einstellungen und Verhalten der Bundesbürger. Opladen: Westdeutscher Verlag 1994.
  • Braun, Michael; Mohler, Peter Ph. (Hrsg.): Blickpunkt Gesellschaft: 4. Soziale Ungleichheit in Deutschland. Opladen: Westdeutscher Verlag 1998.
  • Alba, Richard; Schmidt, Peter; Wasmer, Martina (Hrsg.): Blickpunkt Gesellschaft: 5. Deutsche und Ausländer: Freunde, Fremde oder Feinde? Wiesbaden: Westdeutscher Verlag 2000.
  • Koch, Achim; Wasmer, Martina; Schmidt, Peter (Hrsg.): Blickpunkt Gesellschaft: 6. Politische Partizipation in der Bundesrepublik Deutschland. Empirische Befunde und theoretische Erklärungen. Opladen: Leske + Budrich 2001.
  • Alba, Richard; Schmidt, Peter; Wasmer, Martina (Hrsg.): Germans or Foreigners? Attitudes Towards Ethnic Minorities in Post-Reunification Germany. New York und Houndmills: Palgrave Macmillan 2003.
Relevant full texts
from SSOAR (automatically assigned)


Research Data Centre
    The German General Social Survey (ALLBUS) collects up-to-date data on attitudes, behavior, and social structure in Germany. Every two years since 1980 a representative cross section of the population is surveyed using both constant and variable questions. The ALLBUS data become available to interested parties for research and teaching as soon as they are processed and documented.