GESIS - DBK - ZA4669

ZA4669: Public understanding of science in Europe 1989-2005. A Eurobarometer trend file.

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  • ZA4669_v1-1-0.dta (Dataset Stata) 18 MBytes
  • ZA4669_v1-1-0.sav (Dataset SPSS) 17 MBytes


  • ZA4669_cod.pdf (Codebook) 579 KBytes
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Bibliographic Citation

Citation Citation Bauer, M.W., Shukla, R., Kakar, P. (2012): Public understanding of science in Europe 1989-2005.A Eurobarometer trend file.. European Commission [Principal investigator]. GESIS Data Archive, Cologne. ZA4669 Data file Version 1.1.0,
Study No.ZA4669
TitlePublic understanding of science in Europe 1989-2005. A Eurobarometer trend file.
Other Titles
  • EB_PUS_1989-2005 (Project Title)
Current Version1.1.0, 2012-6-25,
Date of Collection13.03.1989 - 15.02.2005
Principal Investigator/ Authoring Entity, Institution
  • Bauer, Martin W. - London School of Economics and Political Science (LSE), London
  • Shukla, Rajesh - National Council of Applied Economic Research (NCAER), New Delhi
  • Kakar, Preeti - National Council of Applied Economic Research (NCAER), New Delhi
  • Reif, Karlheinz (EB 31, EB38.1) - European Commission, Brussels
  • Soufflot de Magny, Renaud (EB55.2, CCEB2002.3, EB63.1) - European Commission, Brussels


AbstractScience and technology. Compiled data set of five Eurobarometer. Topics: Levels of information and interest towards sports news, politics, new medical discoveries, new investigations and technologies and new scientific discoveries; frequency of visiting a science and technology museum, a zoo or aquarium, a natural history museum, a public library and an art museum; knowledge of fundamental scientific facts (center of the earth is hot, origin of oxygen, radioactive milk, proportions of electrons and atoms, movement of continents, genes, earliest humans lived in the time of dinosaurs, antibiotics, lasers, all radioactivity is man-made, evolution of human beings); natural science knowledge test (the earth orbits around the sun, duration of an orbit around the sun); familiarity with probability calculus and scientific testing methods; assessment of different fields of knowledge as scientific: biology, astronomy, history, physics, astrology, economics, medicine, psychology, mathematics and homeopathy; attitude towards science and technology (scale: more comfort, natural resources will be inexhaustible because of scientific and technological advances, dependence on science and not on faith, no important role of scientific research in protecting the environment, painful experiments on animals should be allowed to produce information about human health problems, knowledge of scientists makes them dangerous, makes work more interesting, knowledge about science is not important in respondent`s daily life, makes the way of life change too fast, more opportunities for the future generation); issue-comparison of Europe and the USA in scientific discoveries, technological advances applied in industry and everyday life; knowledge about European Community activities in scientific and technical areas (agriculture, energy, science and technology, environment and defence). Demography: Marital status, age at completion or stop of fulltime education; sex; age; size of community (degree of urbanization); religion; occupational status; nation.
Categories Categories
  • International Institutions, Relations, Conditions
  • University, Research, the Sciences
  • Technology, Energy
Topics Topics
  • 18 Science and technology


Geographic Coverage
  • France (FR)
  • Belgium (BE)
  • Netherlands (NL)
  • Germany (DE), Germany West and East
  • Italy (IT)
  • Luxembourg (LU)
  • Denmark (DK)
  • Ireland (IE)
  • United Kingdom (GB), Great Britain and Northern Ireland
  • Greece (GR)
  • Spain (ES)
  • Portugal (PT)
  • Finland (FI)
  • Sweden (SE)
  • Austria (AT)
  • Cyprus (CY)
  • Czech Republic (CZ)
  • Estonia (EE)
  • Hungary (HU)
  • Latvia (LV)
  • Lithuania (LT)
  • Malta (MT)
  • Poland (PL)
  • Slovakia (SK)
  • Slovenia (SI)
  • Bulgaria (BG)
  • Romania (RO)
  • Turkey (TR)
  • Croatia (HR)
  • Iceland (IS)
  • Switzerland (CH)
  • Norway (NO)
UniverseResidents in the respective country with national or EU citizenship, aged 15 and over.
Sampling Procedure Sampling Procedure
A multi-stage, random (probability) sampling design was used for this Eurobarometer. In the first stage, primary sampling units (PSU) were selected from each of the administrative regionals units in every country (Statistical Office of the European Community, EUROSTAT NUTS 2 or equivalent). PSU selection was systematic with probability proportional to population size, from sampling frames stratified by the degree of urbanization. In the next stage, a cluster of starting addresses was selected from each sampled PSU, at random. Further addresses were chosen systematically using standard random route procedures as every Nth address from th initial address. In each household, a respondent was drawn, at random, following the closest birthday rule. No more than one interview was conducted in each household. All respondents were supposed to have sufficient command of one of the respective national language(s) to answer the questionnaire. Separate samples were drawn for Northern Ireland and East Germany. Eurobarometer 31: Quota sampling established by sex, age and occupation on the basis of census data in Belgium, France, Italy, the United Kingdom, and Ireland; random selection of individuals or households from population registers in Denmark, Luxembourg, and the Netherlands.
Mode of Collection Mode of Collection
Face-to-face interviews with standardized questionnaire (CAPI if available)
Data CollectorFaits at Opinions, Paris (EB31); INRA, Brussels (EB38.1); European Opinion Research Group (EORG), Brussels (EB55.2); TNS Opinion, Brussels (EB63.1); The Gallup Organization Hungary, Budapest (CCEB2002.3)
Date of Collection
  • 13.03.1989 - 17.04.1989 (Eurobarometer 31)
  • 02.11.1992 - 30.11.1992 (Eurobarometer 38.1)
  • 10.05.2001 - 15.06.2001 (Eurobarometer 55.2)
  • 16.10.2002 - 17.11.2002 (CCEB 2002.3)
  • 03.01.2005 - 15.02.2005 (Eurobarometer 63.1)

Errata & Versions

VersionDate, Name, DOI
1.1.0 (current version)2012-6-25 Archive update
1.0.02011-7-5 1st Archive Release
Errata in current version
Version changes
Changes between version 1.1.0 and it's previous version
DateSubjectDescriptionCorrection Description
2012-6-25k_geneAs documented in the codebook annex, the question wording was modified in 2005, asking for the "mother´s gene" as deciding the sex instead of asking for the "father´s gene". Since the father´s gene item is true, while the other is false, the data were re-coded in order be consistent over time with respect to correctness of the answer. This was not transparent for the user of the dataset in version and value label have been adapted accordingly and the variable description in the codebook has been complemented.

Further Remarks

NotesThe Public Understanding of Science (PUS) project of integration of Eurobarometer data of different waves aimed at creating a cumulative core datasets from the single crossnational databases with a common set of indicators covering public engagement, interest, knowledge and attitudes of the general public in Europe along with some demographic indicators. Five waves were taken, which are as follows: Eurobarometer 31, March-April 1989 (GESIS Study ID ZA1750), Eurobarometer 38.1, November 1992 (GESIS Study ID ZA2295), Eurobarometer 55.2, May-June 2001 (GESIS Study ID ZA3509), Candidate Countries Eurobarometer 2002.3, October-November 2002 (GESIS Study ID ZA4235) and Eurobarometer 63.1, January-February 2005 (GESIS Study ID ZA4233). The project was supported by GESIS-ZA / GESIS department Data Archive for the Social Sciences (DAS). Citation: Martin W. Bauer, Rajesh Shukla, Preeti Kakkar (2011): Public Understanding of Science in Europe 1989-2005. A Eurobarometer Trend File. GESIS, Cologne [Publisher]: ZA4669, dataset version 1.0.0, doi:10.4232/1.10725.
Number of Units: 84469
Number of Variables: 97
Analysis System(s): SPSS, Stata


  • Bauer, Martin W. (2009): The evolution of public understanding of science - discourse and comparative evidence. Science, technology and society, 14 (2). pp. 221-240. ISSN 0971-7218
Relevant full texts
from SSOAR (automatically assigned)


Research Data Centre
  •  EB - Standard and Special Eurobarometer
    Since the early nineteen seventies the European Commission´s “Standard and Special Eurobarometer” are regularly monitoring the public opinion in the European Union member countries at times. Interviews are conducted face-to-face, in each spring and each autumn, at all times based on new samples with a size 1000 respondents per country. Separate samples are drawn for Northern Ireland and East Germany. After the EU enlargement in 2004, remaining and new Candidate Countries are also regularly included in selected surveys. The Standard Eurobarometer modules ask for attitudes towards European unification, institutions and policies, complemented by measurements for general socio-political orientations, as well as by respondent and household demographics. Intermittently special Eurobarometer modules extensively address topics, such as environment, science and technology, health or family issues, social or ethnic exclusion, quality of life etc. The “European Communities Studies” 1970-1973 can be considered forerunner studies, as well the “Attitudes towards Europe” from 1962.