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ZA5182: CSES Module 4 Full Release

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CSES Module 4 Full Release. Comparative Study of Electoral Systems (2011-2016)
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Bibliographic Citation

Citation Citation The Comparative Study of Electoral Systems (2018): CSES Module 4 Full Release. GESIS Data Archive, Cologne. ZA5182 Data file Version 5.0.0,
Study No.ZA5182
TitleCSES Module 4 Full Release
Other Titles
  • Comparative Study of Electoral Systems (2011-2016) (Subtitle)
Current Version5.0.0, 2018-5-29,
Date of Collection06.03.2011 - 28.11.2016
Principal Investigator/ Authoring Entity, Institution
  • Lupu, Noam - Vanderbilt University, United States
  • Oliveros, Virginia - Tulane University, United States
  • Schiumerini, Luis - University of Oxford, United Kingdom
  • Pietsch, Juliet - Australian National University, Australia
  • McAllister, Ian - Australian National University, Australia
  • Bean, Clive - Queensland University of Technology, Australia
  • Gibson, Rachel - University of Manchester, United Kingdom
  • Kritzinger, Sylvia - University of Vienna, Austria
  • Müller, Wolfgang C. - University of Vienna, Austria
  • Schönbach, Klaus - University of Vienna, Austria
  • Meneguello, Rachel - Center for Studies on Public Opinion, Universidade de Campinas, Brazil
  • Dobreva, Alina - European University Institute, Bulgaria
  • Fournier, Patrick - Universite de Montreal, Canada
  • Cutler, Fred - University of British Columbia, Canada
  • Soroka, Stuart - University of Michigan, United States
  • Stolle, Dietlind - McGill University, Canada
  • Linek, Lukas - Institute of Sociology of the Czech Academy of Sciences, Czech Republic
  • Groenlund, Kimmo - Abo Akademi University, Finland
  • Wass, Hanna - University of Helsinki, Finland
  • Sauger, Nicolas - Sciences Po, France
  • Wessels, Bernhard - WZB (Wissenschaftszentrum Berlin für Sozialforschung), Germany
  • Rattinger, Hans - University of Mannheim, Germany
  • Roßteutscher, Sigrid - Goethe University Frankfurt, Germany
  • Schmitt-Beck, Rüdiger - University of Mannheim, Germany
  • Wolf, Christof - GESIS Leibniz-Institute for the Social Sciences, Germany
  • Fieldhouse, Edward - University of Manchester, England
  • Green, Jane - University of Manchester, England
  • Evans, Geoffrey - University of Oxford, England
  • Schmitt, Hermann - University of Manchester, England
  • Van der Eijk, Cees - University of Nottingham, England
  • Mellon, Jonathan - University of Oxford, England
  • Prosser, Christopher - University of Manchester, England
  • Chadjipadelis, Theodore - Aristotle University of Thessaloniki, Greece
  • Teperoglou, Eftichia - Aristotle University of Thessaloniki, Greece
  • Andreadis, Ioannis - Aristotle University of Thessaloniki, Greece
  • Pang-kwong, Li - Lingnan University, Hong Kong
  • Hardarson, Olafur P. - University of Iceland, Iceland
  • Onnudottir, Eva H. - Mannheim University, CDSS, Germany
  • Porisdottir, Hulda - University of Iceland, Iceland
  • Marsh, Michael - Trinity College Dublin, Ireland
  • Shamir, Michal - Tel Aviv University, Israel
  • Kedar, Orit - Hebrew University of Jerusalem, Israel
  • Ikeda, Ken’ichi - Doshisha University, Japan
  • Yamada, Masahiro - Kwansei-Gakuin University, Japan
  • Maeda, Yukio - University of Tokyo, Japan
  • Mattes, Robert - University of Cape Town, South Africa
  • Mitullah, Winnie - University of Nairobi, Kenya
  • Oyuke, Abel - University of Nairobi, Kenya
  • Ikstens, Janis - University of Latvia, Latvia
  • Beltrán, Ulises - Centro de Investigacion y Docencia Economica (CIDE), Mexico
  • Aguilar, Rosario - Centro de Investigacion y Docencia Economica (CIDE), Mexico
  • Komar, Olivera - De Facto Consultancy, Montenegro
  • Gegaj, Pavle - De Facto Consultancy, Montenegro
  • Bešic, Milo - De Facto Consultancy, Montenegro
  • Vowles, Jack - Victoria University of Wellington, New Zealand
  • Coffe, Hilde - Victoria University of Wellington, New Zealand
  • Aardal, Bernt - University of Oslo, Norway
  • Cotterell, Gerard - University of Auckland, New Zealand
  • Curtin, Jennifer - University of Auckland, New Zealand
  • Bergh, Johannes - Institute for Social Research, Oslo, Norway
  • Guerrero, Linda Luz - Social Weather Stations, Philippines
  • Sulmont, David - Pontificia Universidad Catolica del Peru, Peru
  • Martinez, Vania - Instituto de Opinion Publica, Pontificia Universidad Catolica del Peru, Peru
  • Licudine, Vladymir Joseph - Social Weather Stations, Philippines
  • Markowski, Radosław - University of Social Sciences and Humanities, Poland
  • Cześnik, Mikołaj - University of Social Sciences and Humanities, Poland
  • Grzelak, Paweł - Institute of Political Studies, Polish Academy of Sciences, Poland
  • Kotnarowski, Michal - Institute of Political Studies, Polish Academy of Sciences, Poland
  • Magalhaes, Pedro - Institute of Social Sciences, University of Lisbon, Portugal
  • Costa Lobo, Marina - Institute of Social Sciences, University of Lisbon, Portugal
  • Tiago Gaspar, Joao - Institute of Social Sciences, University of Lisbon, Portugal
  • Comsa, Mircea - Babes-Bolyai University of Cluj-Napoca, Romania
  • Fesnic, Florin N. - Babes-Bolyai University of Cluj-Napoca, Romania
  • Gheorghita, Andrei - Lucian Blaga University of Sibiu, Romania
  • Badescu, Gabriel - Babes-Bolyai University of Cluj-Napoca, Romania
  • Tufis, Claudiu D. - University of Bucharest, Romania
  • Stanus, Cristina - Lucian Blaga University of Sibiu, Romania
  • Voicu, Bogdan - Romanian Academy, Romania
  • Postelnicu, Camil - Babes-Bolyai University of Cluj-Napoca, Romania
  • Todosijevic, Bojan - Center for Political Studies and Public Opinion Research, Serbia
  • Pavlovic, Zoran - University of Belgrade, Serbia
  • Gyarfasova, Olga - Comenius University, Slovakia
  • Bahna, Miloslav - Slovak Academy of Sciences (SU SAV), Slovakia
  • Stebe, Janez - Faculty of Social Sciences, University of Ljubljana, Slovenia
  • Mattes, Robert - University of Cape Town, South Africa
  • Shulz-Herzenberg, Collette - Stellenbosch University, South Africa
  • Lee, Nam Young - Korean Social Science Data Center, South Korea
  • Kim, Wook - Paichai University, South Korea
  • Oscarsson, Henrik - University of Gothenburg, Sweden
  • Lutz, Georg - FORS & University of Lausanne, Switzerland
  • Huang, Chi - National Chengchi University, Taiwan, R.O.C.
  • Bureekul, Thawilwadee - King Prajadhipok’s Institute, Thailand
  • Albitton, Robert B. - University of Mississippi, United States
  • Sangmahamad, Ratchawadee - King Prajadhipok’s Institute, Thailand
  • Carkoglu, Ali - Koc University, Turkey
  • Aytac, Selim Erdem - Koc University, Turkey
  • Howell, Dave A. - University of Michigan, United States
  • Ilirjani, Altin - USAID, United States
  • Donakowski, Darrell - University of Michigan, United States
  • Hutchings, Vincent - University of Michigan, United States
  • Jackman, Simon - Stanford University, United States
  • Segura, Gary M. - Stanford University, United States


AbstractThe module was administered as a post-election interview. The resulting data are provided along with voting, demographic, district and macro variables in a single dataset. CSES Variable Table The list of variables is being provided on the CSES Website to help in understanding what content is available from CSES, and to compare the content available in each module. Themes: MICRO-LEVEL DATA: Identification and study administration variables: weighting factors; election type; date of election 1st and 2nd round; study timing (post-election study, pre-election and post-election study, between rounds of majoritarian election); mode of interview; gender of interviewer; date questionnaire administered; primary electoral district of respondent; number of days the interview was conducted after the election; language of questionnaire. Demography: year and month of birth; gender; education; marital status; union membership; union membership of others in household; business association membership, farmers´ association membership; professional association membership; current employment status; main occupation; socio economic status; employment type - public or private; industrial sector; current employment status, occupation, socio economic status, employment type - public or private, and industrial sector of spouse; household income; number of persons in household; number of children in household under the age of 18; number of children in household under the age of 6; attendance at religious services; religiosity; religious denomination; language usually spoken at home; region of residence; race; ethnicity; rural or urban residence; primary electoral district; country of birth; year arrived in current country. Survey variables: perception of public expenditure on health, education, unemployment benefits, defense, old-age pensions, business and industry, police and law enforcement, welfare benefits; perception of improving individual standard of living, state of economy, government’s action on income inequality; respondent cast a ballot at the current and the previous election; vote choice (presidential, lower house and upper house elections) at the current and the previous election; respondent cast candidate preference vote at the current and the previous election; difference who is in power and who people vote for; sympathy scale for selected parties and political leaders; assessment of parties on the left-right-scale and/or an alternative scale; self-assessment on a left-right-scale and an optional scale; satisfaction with democracy; party identification; intensity of party identification, institutional and personal contact in the electoral campaigning, in person, by mail, phone, text message, email or social networks, institutional contact by whom; political information questions; expected development of household income in the next twelve month; ownership of residence, business or property or farm or livestock, stocks or bonds, savings; likelihood to find another job within the next twelve month; spouse likelihood to find another job within the next twelve month. DISTRICT-LEVEL DATA: number of seats contested in electoral district; number of candidates; number of party lists; percent vote of different parties; official voter turnout in electoral district. MACRO-LEVEL DATA: election outcomes by parties in current (lower house/upper house) legislative election; percent of seats in lower house received by parties in current lower house/upper house election; percent of seats in upper house received by parties in current lower house/upper house election; percent of votes received by presidential candidate of parties in current elections; electoral turnout; party of the president and the prime minister before and after the election; number of portfolios held by each party in cabinet, prior to and after the most recent election; size of the cabinet after the most recent election; number of parties participating in election; ideological families of parties; left-right position of parties assigned by experts and alternative dimensions; most salient factors in the election; fairness of the election; formal complaints against national level results; election irregularities reported; scheduled and held date of election; irregularities of election date; extent of election violence and post-election violence; geographic concentration of violence; post-election protest; electoral alliances permitted during the election campaign; existing electoral alliances; requirements for joint party lists; possibility of apparentement and types of apparentement agreements; multi-party endorsements on ballot; votes cast; voting procedure; voting rounds; party lists close, open, or flexible; transferable votes; cumulated votes if more than one can be cast; compulsory voting; party threshold; unit for the threshold; freedom house rating; democracy-autocracy polity IV rating; age of the current regime; regime: type of executive; number of months since last lower house and last presidential election; electoral formula for presidential elections; electoral formula in all electoral tiers (majoritarian, proportional or mixed); for lower and upper houses was coded: number of electoral segments; linked electoral segments; dependent formulae in mixed systems; subtypes of mixed electoral systems; district magnitude (number of members elected from each district); number of secondary and tertiary electoral districts; fused vote; size of the lower house; GDP growth (annual percent); GDP per capita; inflation, GDP Deflator (annual percent); Human development index; total population; total unemployment; TI corruption perception index; international migrant stock and net migration rate; general government final consumption expenditure; public spending on education; health expenditure; military expenditure; central government debt; Gini index; internet users per 100 inhabitants; mobile phone subscriptions per 100 inhabitants; fixed telephone lines per 100 inhabitants; daily newspapers; constitutional federal structure; number of legislative chambers; electoral results data available; effective number of electoral and parliamentary parties.
Categories Categories
  • Political Attitudes and Behavior
  • Political behaviour and attitudes
  • Elections
Old Topics Old Topics
  • 11.5 Mass political behaviour, attitudes/opinion
  • 11.7 Elections


Geographic Coverage
  • Argentina (AR)
  • Australia (AU)
  • Austria (AT)
  • Brazil (BR)
  • Bulgaria (BG)
  • Canada (CA)
  • Czech Republic (CZ)
  • Finland (FI)
  • France (FR)
  • Germany (DE)
  • Great Britain (GB-GBN)
  • Greece (GR)
  • Hong Kong (HK)
  • Iceland (IS)
  • Ireland (IE)
  • Israel (IL)
  • Japan (JP)
  • Kenya (KE)
  • Latvia (LV)
  • Mexico (MX)
  • Montenegro (ME)
  • New Zealand (NZ)
  • Norway (NO)
  • Peru (PE)
  • Philippines (PH)
  • Poland (PL)
  • Portugal (PT)
  • Romania (RO)
  • Serbia (RS)
  • Slovakia (SK)
  • Slovenia (SI)
  • South Africa (ZA)
  • Korea, Republic of (KR), South Korea
  • Sweden (SE)
  • Switzerland (CH)
  • Taiwan (TW)
  • Thailand (TH)
  • Turkey (TR)
  • United States of America (US)
UniverseThe universe differs across countries. In most countries it includes eligible voters or residents aged 18 or older.
Sampling Procedure Sampling Procedure
Sampling procedures differ across countries. In most cases multistage stratified cluster sampling or stratified systematic random sampling was used. Detailed information on sampling for most countries is available in the codebook.
Mode of Collection Mode of Collection
Individual level: Modes of data collection differ across countries. A standardized questionnaire was administered in face-to-face interviews, telephone interviews or as fixed form self-administered questionnaire. District level: Aggregation of official electoral statistics. Country level: Expert survey using fixed form self-administered questionnaire.
Data CollectorArgentina: MBC Mori, Buenos Aires; Australia: Survey Research Centre Pty Ltd, Melbourne; Austria: Jaksch & Partner, Linz; Brazil: IBOPE Inteligência, São Paulo; Bulgaria: TNS BBSS SEE, Sofia; Canada: Institute for Social Research (Canada outside Quebec), Toronto & Jolicoeur & Associés (Quebec), Montreal; Czech Republic: CVVM (Center for public opinion research) at the Institute of Sociology, Czech Academy of Sciences, Prague; Finland: TNS Gallup Oy, Espoo; France: TNS-Sofres, Montrouge; Germany: MARPLAN Media- und Sozialforschungsgesellschaft mbH, Frankfurt am Main; Great Britain: GfK UK Ltd, London; Greece: Artistotle University of Thessaloniki Laboratory of Applied Political Research, To The Point Research Consulting Communication S.A., Thessaloniki; Hong Kong: Public Governance Programme, Hong Kong; Iceland: Social Science Research Institute of the University of Iceland, Reykjavík; Ireland: RED C Research & Marketing Ltd, Dublin; Israel: The B.I. and Lucille Cohen institute for Public Opinion Research, Tel Aviv; Japan: Nippon Research Center (Member of Gallup International Association), Tokyo; Kenya: Institute for Development Studies University of Nairobi, Nairobi; Latvia: TNS Latvia, Riga; Mexico: CAMPO, S. C., Puebla; Montenegro: De Facto Consultancy, Podgorica; New Zealand: Centre for Methods and Policy Applications in the Social Sciences (COMPASS), University of Auckland, Auckland; Norway: Statistics Norway, Oslo; Peru: Instituto de Opinión Pública de la Pontificia Universidad Católica del Perú, Lima; Philippines: Social Weather Stations, Quezon City; Poland: Public Opinion Research Center (Centrum Badania Opinii Społecznej,CBOS), Warsaw; Portugal: GfK Portugal – Metris, Lisbon; Romania: KANTAR TNS (CSOP), Bucharest; Serbia: Ipsos Strategic Marketing, Belgrad; Slovakia: TNS Slovakia s.r.o., Bratislava; Slovenia: CJMMK (Public Opinion and Mass Communication Research Centre), Ljubljana; South Africa: Citizen Surveys, Woodstock; South Korea: Korean Social Science Data Center, Seoul; Sweden: Statistics Sweden, SCB, Örebro; Switzerland: DemoSCOPE Research & Marketing, Adligenswil; Taiwan: Department of Political Science, National Taiwan University, Taipei; Thailand: King Prajadhipok’s Institute, Bangkok; Turkey: Frekans Araştırma, Istanbul; United States: Abt SRBI, New York
Date of Collection
  • 21.11.2015 - 30.12.2015 (Argentina)
  • 06.09.2013 - 06.01.2014 (Australia)
  • 01.10.2013 - 29.10.2013 (Austria)
  • 01.11.2014 - 19.11.2014 (Brazil)
  • 23.01.2015 - 31.01.2015 (Bulgaria)
  • 03.05.2011 - 05.07.2011 (Canada (2011))
  • 20.10.2015 - 23.12.2015 (Canada (2015))
  • 28.10.2013 - 14.11.2013 (Czech Republic)
  • 24.04.2015 - 07.07.2015 (Finland)
  • 10.05.2012 - 09.06.2012 (France)
  • 23.09.2013 - 23.12.2013 (Germany)
  • 07.05.2015 - 29.09.2015 (Great Britain)
  • 19.10.2012 - 05.01.2013 (Greece (2012))
  • 12.06.2015 - 08.09.2015 (Greece (2015))
  • 13.09.2012 - 21.09.2012 (Hong Kong)
  • 04.05.2013 - 10.09.2013 (Iceland)
  • 06.03.2011 - 10.04.2011 (Ireland)
  • 18.02.2013 - 13.03.2013 (Israel)
  • 22.07.2013 - 25.08.2013 (Japan)
  • 21.10.2013 - 28.11.2013 (Kenya)
  • 16.10.2011 - 11.11.2011 (Latvia (2011))
  • 07.11.2014 - 20.11.2014 (Latvia (2014))
  • 13.07.2012 - 19.07.2012 (Mexico (2012))
  • 20.06.2015 - 28.06.2015 (Mexico (2015))
  • 02.02.2013 - 28.03.2013 (Montenegro)
  • 30.11.2011 - 04.04.2012 (New Zealand (2011))
  • 23.09.2014 - 06.02.2015 (New Zealand (2014))
  • 12.09.2013 - 06.01.2014 (Norway)
  • 07.05.2016 - 17.05.2016 (Peru)
  • 24.06.2016 - 27.06.2016 (Philippines)
  • 20.10.2011 - 13.11.2011 (Poland)
  • 17.10.2015 - 09.12.2015 (Portugal)
  • 15.12.2012 - 30.01.2013 (Romania (2012))
  • 20.11.2014 - 08.12.2014 (Romania (2014))
  • 21.12.2012 - 10.02.2013 (Serbia)
  • 13.10.2016 - 28.11.2016 (Slovakia)
  • 29.03.2012 - 28.05.2012 (Slovenia)
  • 02.02.2015 - 26.02.2015 (South Africa)
  • 12.04.2012 - 29.04.2012 (South Korea)
  • 15.09.2014 - 17.11.2014 (Sweden)
  • 24.10.2011 - 12.12.2011 (Switzerland)
  • 15.01.2012 - 06.03.2012 (Taiwan)
  • 03.07.2011 - 19.09.2011 (Thailand)
  • 18.07.2015 - 10.09.2015 (Turkey)
  • 07.11.2012 - 13.01.2013 (United States)

Errata & Versions

VersionDate, Name, DOI
5.0.0 (current version)2018-5-29 Full Release
4.0.02017-4-11 Fourth Advance Release
3.0.02016-6-27 Third Advance Release
2.0.02015-3-20 Second Advance Release
1.0.02014-4-28 First Advance Release
Errata in current version
2014-5-20For information on Errata and Version History, please go to the CSES Website, CSES Module 4: 2011-2016, Errata
Version changes

Further Remarks

NotesInformation on funders These materials are based on work supported by the American National Science Foundation ( under grant numbers SES-0817701 and SES-1154687, the German Federal Ministry of Education and Research, the governments of several German Länder, the University of Michigan, in-kind support of participating election studies, the many organizations that sponsor planning meetings and conferences, and the many organizations that fund election studies by CSES collaborators. Disclaimer Any opinions, findings and conclusions, or recommendations expressed in these materials are those of the author(s) and do not necessarily reflect the views of the funding organizations. Further country-specific documentation Field questionnaires, macro reports, and design reports are provided for download on the website CSES Module 4 Election Study Archive
Number of Units: 75558
Number of Variables: 484
Analysis System(s): SPSS, Stata


Relevant full texts
from SSOAR (automatically assigned)


Research Data Centre
  •  Comparative Study of Electoral Systems (CSES)
    CSES is a collaborative program of research among election study teams from around the world. The research program as well as the questionnaire and the study design are developed by an international committee of leading social researchers. Participating countries include a common module of survey questions in their post-election studies. The data contain information on individual choice behavior, demographics, the constituencies, the national election results and the political systems. The studies are then merged into a single, free, public dataset for use in comparative study and cross-level analysis.