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ZA6788: Eurobarometer 86.2 (2016)

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Eurobarometer 86.2 (November 2016)
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Bibliographic Citation

Citation Citation    European Commission, Brussels (2019): Eurobarometer 86.2 (2016). TNS opinion, Brussels [producer]. GESIS Data Archive, Cologne. ZA6788 Data file Version 1.4.0,
Study No.ZA6788
TitleEurobarometer 86.2 (2016)
Other Titles
  • Standard Eurobarometer 86 (Alternative Title)
Current Version1.4.0, 2019-6-27,
Alternate IDs Alternate IDs
  •, v1-3-0
Date of Collection03.11.2016 - 16.11.2016
Principal Investigator/ Authoring Entity, Institution
  • European Commission, Brussels; Directorate General Communication COMM.A.1 ´Strategic Communication´


AbstractAttitudes towards the EU. Europe 2020. European economy. European citizenship. Media use. Topics: 1. Attitudes towards the EU: life satisfaction; frequency of discussions about political matters on national, European, and local level; assessment of the current situation in the following areas: national economy, European economy, personal job situation, financial situation of the own household, national employment situation, provision of public services in the own country (not in CY); expectations for the next twelve months regarding: personal life in general, national economic situation, financial situation of the own household, national employment situation, personal job situation, economic situation in the EU, economic situation in the world; most important problems in the own country, personally, and in the EU (only in EU28); assessment of the own country’s assumed membership in the EU as a good thing (not in EU28 and CY); expectations of benefit from an assumed membership of the own country (not in EU28 and CY); assessment of the full application of EU legislation as a good thing (only in CY); expectations of benefit from the full application of EU legislation (only in CY); general direction things are going in the own country, the EU, and in the USA; trust in selected institutions: written press (not in CY), radio (not in CY), television (not in CY), internet (not in CY), online social networks (not in CY), national legal system (not in CY), police (not in CY), army (not in CY), public administration (not in CY), political parties, regional or local public authorities (not in CY), national government (not in CY), national parliament (not in CY), European Union, United Nations; image of the EU; positive associations with the following terms: free trade, globalisation, liberalisation (not in CY), competition (not in CY), public service (not in CY), security (not in CY), solidarity (not in CY); meaning of the EU to the respondent (only in EU28); most suitable attributes for describing the EU: modern, democratic, protective, efficient, technocratic, forward-looking (only in EU28); approval of the following statements on the EU (only in EU28): creates conditions for more jobs in Europe, makes doing business easier in Europe, generates too much bureaucracy, needs a clearer message; knowledge of and trust in selected institutions: European Parliament, European Commission, European Central Bank (only in EU28); knowledge test on the EU: number of member states, direct election of European Parliament members by the citizens of each member state, Switzerland is a member of the EU; attitude towards the following issues: European economic and monetary union with one single currency, common foreign policy of all member states (only in EU28), further enlargement, common defence and security policy (only in EU28), free trade and investment agreement between the EU and the USA (only in EU28), common European migration policy (only in EU28), common energy policy (only in EU28), digital single market within the EU (only in EU28), free movement of EU citizens (only in EU28); satisfaction with the democracy in the own country and in the EU (only in EU28); own voice counts in the own country and in the EU; approval of the following statements: respondent understands how the EU works, recognition of the own country’s interests in the EU (only in EU28, not in CY), EU’s voice counts in the world, globalisation as an opportunity for economic growth, better development of the own country outside the EU (only in EU28, not in CY), more decisions to be taken at EU level (only in EU28, not in CY), optimism about the future of the EU (only in EU28). 2. Europe 2020 (only in EU28): likelihood to reach the following objectives by 2020: three quarters of people between 20 and 64 years of age having a job, share of funds invested in research and development reaching 3% of the wealth produced in the EU each year, reduction of EU greenhouse gas emissions by at least 20% (compared to 1990), increase of the share of renewable energy in the EU by 20%, increase of energy efficiency in the EU by 20%, reduction of the share of young people leaving school without qualifications to 10%, at least 40% of the people aged 30 to 34 having a higher education degree or diploma, reduction of the number of people living below the poverty line by a quarter, increase industry’s contribution to economy to 20% of GDP; EU is going in the right direction to exit the crisis and face new global challenges; prioritized objectives in a European energy union; feeling towards immigration of people from: other EU member states, outside the EU; attitude towards additional measures to fight illegal immigration of people from outside the EU on EU level and / or on national level; attitude towards the right for EU citizens to: live or work in every member state of the EU, live or work in the respondent’s country. 3. European economy: impact of the economic crisis on the job market has already reached its peak; approval of the following statements (only in EU28): measures to reduce public deficit and debt in the own country cannot be delayed (split A), measures to reduce public deficit and debt in the own country are not a priority for now (split B), EU has sufficient power and tools to defend its economic interests globally, private sector is better placed to create new jobs than public sector, public money should be used to stimulate private sector investment at EU level; approval of selected measures to reform global financial markets (only in EU28): introduction of a tax on financial transactions, introduction of Eurobonds, wage regulation in the financial sector, tougher rules on tax avoidance and tax havens. 4. European citizenship: feeling of attachment towards (only in CY): own city, own community, European Union, Europe; approval of the following statements (only in EU28): feeling of being a citizen of the EU, knowledge of the rights of EU citizens, desire for more information on the rights of EU citizens; feeling of national and / or European identity (only in EU28); most positive results of the EU; most important factors for creating a feeling of community among EU citizens (only in EU28); most important personal values (only in EU28); values that best represent the EU (only in EU28); amount of shared values between the member states (only in EU28); approval of selected statements (only in EU28 and CY): state intervenes too much in personal lives, immigrants contribute a lot to the own country, people in the own country have a lot of things in common, respondent understands what is going on the world, own country should help refugees, everything was better before, confidence in the future; likelihood to make use of the ´European Citizens’ Initiative´ (only in EU28); most likely political fields to use the ´European Citizens’ Initiative´ (only in EU28); awareness of the Erasmus programme (only in EU28); attitude towards the Erasmus programme (only in EU28); association with the 60th anniversary of the Rome Treaty (only in EU28); assessment of the Treaty of Rome as a historic event (only in EU28). 5. Media use: assessment of the informedness of the people in the own country about European matters; self-rated knowledge about European matters; frequency of the following activities (only in EU28): watching television on a TV set, watching television via the internet, listening to the radio, reading printed press, using the internet, using online social networks; preferred sources of information on national political matters (only in EU28); preferred sources of information on European political matters; preferred sources of information on the European Union, its policies and institutions; assessment of the appropriateness of coverage with European Union issues in the following media (only in EU28): TV, radio, printed press, websites, online social networks; assessment of the presentation of the EU in the national media as positive (only in EU28); attitude towards selected statements on political information in online social networks: modern way to keep abreast, not trustworthy, can get people interested, good way to have a say. Demography: nationality; left-right self-placement; marital status; age at end of education; sex; age; occupation; professional position; type of community; household composition and household size; possession of durable goods (entertainment electronics, internet connection, possession of a car, a flat/a house have finished paying for or still paying for); financial difficulties during the last year; internet use (at home, at work, at school); self-reported belonging to the working class, the middle class or the upper class of society. Additionally coded was: respondent ID; country; questionnaire split; date of interview; time of the beginning of the interview; duration of the interview; number of persons present during the interview; respondent cooperation; size of locality; region; language of the interview (only in BE, LU, ES, FI, EE, LV, MT, MK, TR); nation group; weighting factor.
Categories Categories
  • International Institutions, Relations, Conditions
  • Political Attitudes and Behavior
  • Economic Policy, National Economic Situation
  • Society, Culture
  • Political Issues
  • Communication, Public Opinion, Media
Topics Topics
  • 5.4 Cultural and national identity
  • 9 Information and communication
  • 11 Politics
  • 11.2 International politics and organisation
  • 17.4 Economic conditions and indicators
  • 17.5 Economic policy


Geographic Coverage
  • Belgium (BE)
  • Bulgaria (BG)
  • Czech Republic (CZ)
  • Denmark (DK)
  • Germany (DE)
  • Estonia (EE)
  • Ireland (IE)
  • Greece (GR)
  • Spain (ES)
  • France (FR)
  • Italy (IT)
  • Cyprus (CY)
  • Latvia (LV)
  • Lithuania (LT)
  • Luxembourg (LU)
  • Hungary (HU)
  • Malta (MT)
  • Netherlands (NL)
  • Austria (AT)
  • Poland (PL)
  • Portugal (PT)
  • Romania (RO)
  • Slovenia (SI)
  • Slovakia (SK)
  • Finland (FI)
  • Sweden (SE)
  • Croatia (HR)
  • Turkey (TR)
  • Macedonia, the Former Yugoslav Republic of (MK)
  • Montenegro (ME)
  • Serbia (RS)
  • Great Britain (GB-GBN)
  • Northern Ireland (GB-NIR)
  • Albania (AL)
UniversePopulation of the respective nationalities of the European Union Member States and other EU nationals, resident in each of the 28 Member States and aged 15 years and over. The survey has also been conducted in Turkey, the Former Yugoslav Republic of Macedonia, Montenegro, Serbia, Albania, and in the Turkish Cypriot Community. In these countries, it covers the national population of citizens and the population of citizens of all the European Union Member States that are residents in these countries and have a sufficient command of the national languages to answer the questionnaire.
Analysis Unit Analysis Unit
  • Individual
Sampling Procedure Sampling Procedure
Probability Sample: Multistage Sample
Mode of Collection Mode of Collection
Face-to-face interview Face-to-face interview: CAPI (Computer Assisted Personal Interview)
Data Collector TNS Dimarso, Brussels, Belgium; TNS BBSS, Sofia, Bulgaria; TNS Aisa, Prague, Czech Republic; TNS GALLUP DK, Copenhagen, Denmark; TNS Infratest, Munich, Germany; TNS Emor, Tallinn, Estonia; Behaviour & Attitudes, Dublin, Ireland; TNS ICAP, Athens, Greece; TNS Spain, Madrid, Spain; TNS Sofres, Montrouge, France; TNS Italia, Milan, Italy; CYMAR Market Research, Nicosia, Cyprus; TNS Latvia, Riga, Latvia; TNS LT, Vilnius, Lithuania; TNS ILReS, Luxembourg, Luxembourg; TNS Hoffmann Kft, Budapest, Hungary; MISCO, Valletta, Malta; TNS NIPO, Amsterdam, Netherlands; ipr Umfrageforschung, Vienna, Austria; TNS Polska, Warsaw, Poland; TNS Portugal, Lisbon, Portugal; TNS CSOP, Bucharest, Romania; Mediana D.O.O., Ljubljana, Slovenia; TNS Slovakia, Bratislava, Slovakia; TNS GALLUP Oy, Espoo, Finland; TNS Sifo, Stockholm and Gothenburg, Sweden; TNS UK, London, United Kingdom; HENDAL, Zagreb, Croatia; Lipa Consultancy, Nicosia, Turkish Cypriot Community; TNS PIAR, Istanbul, Turkey; TNS Brima, Skopje, Macedonia; TNS Medium Gallup, Belgrade, Montenegro; TNS Medium Gallup, Belgrade, Serbia; TNS BBSS, Sofia, Albania; TNS opinion, Brussels (international co-ordination)
Date of Collection
  • 03.11.2016 - 16.11.2016 (total)
  • 05.11.2016 - 14.11.2016 (Belgium)
  • 03.11.2016 - 14.11.2016 (Bulgaria)
  • 05.11.2016 - 14.11.2016 (Czech Republic)
  • 05.11.2016 - 14.11.2016 (Denmark)
  • 05.11.2016 - 13.11.2016 (Germany)
  • 05.11.2016 - 14.11.2016 (Estonia)
  • 05.11.2016 - 14.11.2016 (Ireland)
  • 05.11.2016 - 13.11.2016 (Greece)
  • 05.11.2016 - 14.11.2016 (Spain)
  • 05.11.2016 - 14.11.2016 (France)
  • 05.11.2016 - 14.11.2016 (Croatia)
  • 05.11.2016 - 14.11.2016 (Italy)
  • 05.11.2016 - 14.11.2016 (Cyprus)
  • 05.11.2016 - 14.11.2016 (Latvia)
  • 05.11.2016 - 14.11.2016 (Lithuania)
  • 05.11.2016 - 14.11.2016 (Luxembourg)
  • 05.11.2016 - 14.11.2016 (Hungary)
  • 05.11.2016 - 14.11.2016 (Malta)
  • 05.11.2016 - 14.11.2016 (Netherlands)
  • 05.11.2016 - 13.11.2016 (Austria)
  • 05.11.2016 - 14.11.2016 (Poland)
  • 05.11.2016 - 14.11.2016 (Portugal)
  • 05.11.2016 - 14.11.2016 (Romania)
  • 05.11.2016 - 14.11.2016 (Slovenia)
  • 05.11.2016 - 14.11.2016 (Slovakia)
  • 05.11.2016 - 16.11.2016 (Finland)
  • 05.11.2016 - 14.11.2016 (Sweden)
  • 05.11.2016 - 14.11.2016 (United Kingdom)
  • 05.11.2016 - 13.11.2016 (Turkish Cypriot Community)
  • 05.11.2016 - 14.11.2016 (Turkey)
  • 05.11.2016 - 13.11.2016 (Former Yugoslav Republic of Macedonia)
  • 05.11.2016 - 14.11.2016 (Montenegro)
  • 05.11.2016 - 13.11.2016 (Serbia)
  • 09.11.2016 - 15.11.2016 (Albania)

Errata & Versions

VersionDate, Name, DOI
1.4.0 (current version)2019-6-27 Archive pre-release (update)
1.3.02017-8-16 Archive pre-release (update)
1.2.02017-6-1 Archive pre-release (update)
1.1.02017-4-12 Archive pre-release update
1.0.02017-4-7 Archive pre-release
Errata in current version
2019-6-27p6al, p7alPlease note a deviant frequency distribution for the SIZE OF COMMUNITY variable p6al and the REGION variable p7al for Albania. Usually the number of cases for code 1 “Rural area” hovers around 46% (weighted) and for code 2 “Urban area” around 54% (weighted), both coded across all regions in REGION variable p7al. In Eurobarometer 86.2 33% (weighted) of the Albanian cases are coded “Rural area”, all belonging to region “Tirana”. At the same time the proportion of Tirana is 36% (weighted), usually it hovers around 27% (weighted). This is also the case in Eurobarometer 85.2.
2019-11-29q1.29Please note that in the original data delivery and the dataset versions v1-0-0 to v1-3-0 14 respondents from the Turkish Cypriot Community are coded 1 (Mentioned) in q1.29 (“NATIONALITY: TURKEY”) even though q1.29 should only have been fielded in Turkey. In the current dataset version v1-4-0 the filter instruction had been consistently applied to variables q1.29 to g1.34 and consequently these cases have been coded to 9 “Inap. (NOT ASKED IN OTHER COUNTRIES)”. This erroneous recoding of these outliers will be corrected with the next update.
Version changes
Changes between version 1.4.0 and it's previous version
DateSubjectDescriptionCorrection Description
2017-8-23gen1 to gen6The age stated in the variable labels is slightly shifted. It should read gen1 "GENERATION BEFORE 1928 (AGE 88-99)" gen2 "GENERATION 1928-1945 (AGE 70-87)" gen3 "GENERATION BEFORE 1946 (AGE 70-99)" gen4 "GENERATION 1946-1964 (AGE 51-69)" gen5 "GENERATION 1965-1980 (AGE 35-50)" gen6 "GENERATION AFTER 1980 (AGE 15-34)" The labels will be corrected during the next update. However, please note that the year of birth can only approximately be inferred from the respondent´s age at the interview date. 2019-6-27variable labels corrected
2017-8-29q1.29-q1.34Please note that in question Q1 (“NATIONALITY”) items 29 to 34 (“Turkey”, “Turkish Cypriot Community”, “Former Yugoslav Republic of Macedonia”, “Montenegro”, “Serbia” and “Albania”) are only asked in the corresponding country and not in other countries. This filter instruction is not yet applied in variables q1.29 to q1.34 by recoding the excluded countries to code 9 (“Inap. (NOT ASKED IN OTHER COUNTRIES)“). Currently, excluded countries are coded 0 (“Not mentioned”). The variables will be corrected with the next update. 2019-6-27variables corrected
2019-6-21d8r1Please note the following erroneous coding for recoded variable d8r1: The case coded “87” indicates the specific age of the respondent when stopped full-time education (see source variable d8) and should be assigned to category “9” (“22 years and older”). The variable will be corrected with the next update.2019-6-27variable corrected
2019-6-21qc2_1, qc2_2Please note that the standard missing values are erroneously not completely declared as USER MISSING in variables qc2_1 and qc2_2. The missing values (value code 8) will be defined as additional USER MISSING with the next update.2019-6-27missing values defined
2019-6-21qa2a_7 Please note that the value label for code 9 in variable qa2a_7 is missing and should read “Inap. (CY-TCC in isocntry)”. The value label will be added with the next update.2019-6-27value label added
2019-6-21qd4b_3 Please note the following erroneous coding for variable qd4b.3: The cases coded “8” indicate the skipped respondents (answering None or DK in qd4a) correctly but should be assigned to standard category “9” (“Inap. (coded 10 or 11 in qd4a)”). The variable will be corrected with the next update.2019-6-27variable corrected
2019-6-21qd14Please note the following erroneous coding for variable qd14: All cases outside EU28 should have been coded “99” (“Inap. (not 1 in eu28“) but are erroneously assigned to substantial answer category “9” (“DK”), which is also erroneously labelled “Inap. (not 1 in eu28)“ instead of “DK”. Users should apply the filter instruction (eu28 = 1) when using the variable. The variable will be corrected with the next update.2019-6-27variable corrected
2019-6-21qa10_3 to qa10_7 Value label for code 9 should read (“Inap. (MK ME RS TR AL in isocntry“). The value label will be corrected with the next update.2019-6-27value label corrected
2019-6-21qd9_1 to qd9_7Please note the following erroneous coding for variables qd9_4, qd9_6 and qd9_7: Cases from Turkish Cypriot Community have been erroneously been coded “9” (“Inap. (MK ME RS AL TR in isocntry”). The variables will be corrected with the next update. Moreover, value labels for code 9 in variables qd9_1-qd9_3 and qd9_5 should read (“Inap. (not 1 in eu28“). The value labels will be corrected with the next update.2019-6-27variables and value labels corrected
2019-6-25qe4tPlease note that summarized variable qe4t ("NAT POLIT MATTERS NEWS - INTERNET (TOTAL)") is not correct and should not be used. The variable will be corrected with the next update.2019-6-27variable corrected
Changes between version 1.3.0 and it's previous version
DateSubjectDescriptionCorrection Description
2017-8-10qd8Variable label for qd8 should read "EUROPEAN UNION - IN TERMS OF SHARED VALUES". The variable label will be corrected with the next update.2017-8-16variable label corrected
Changes between version 1.2.0 and it's previous version
DateSubjectDescriptionCorrection Description
2017-5-26w85Please note that variable label for weight w85 should read „WEIGHT EURO ZONE 19 (EU28)”. The variable label will be corrected with the next update.2017-6-1variable label corrected
Changes between version 1.1.0 and it's previous version
DateSubjectDescriptionCorrection Description
2017-4-11w87 / eu27bWeight w87 "WEIGHT EU28 (NO UK)" and the corresponding country group variable eu27b have erroneously been dropped from the data set.2017-4-12The variables have been added to the data set.

Further Remarks

NotesAll question modules in the standard Eurobarometer context and largely replicating questions asked in the context of Eurobarometer 85.2 [ZA6694] or 84.3 [ZA6643]. Data for protocol variables p8 (postal code), p9 (sample point number) and p10 (interviewer number) have not been made available.
Number of Units: 32896
Number of Variables: 730
Analysis System(s): SPSS, Stata


  • European Commission: Standard Eurobarometer 86. Public Opinion in the European Union. Survey requested by the European Commission, requested and co-ordinated by Directorate-General for Communication (DG COMM Unit ´Strategic Communication´). doi:10.2775/196906 []
Relevant full texts
from SSOAR (automatically assigned)


Research Data Centre
  •  EB - Standard and Special Eurobarometer
    Since the early nineteen seventies the European Commission´s “Standard and Special Eurobarometer” are regularly monitoring the public opinion in the European Union member countries at times. Interviews are conducted face-to-face, in each spring and each autumn, at all times based on new samples with a size 1000 respondents per country. Separate samples are drawn for Northern Ireland and East Germany. After the EU enlargement in 2004, remaining and new Candidate Countries are also regularly included in selected surveys. The Standard Eurobarometer modules ask for attitudes towards European unification, institutions and policies, complemented by measurements for general socio-political orientations, as well as by respondent and household demographics. Intermittently special Eurobarometer modules extensively address topics, such as environment, science and technology, health or family issues, social or ethnic exclusion, quality of life etc. The “European Communities Studies” 1970-1973 can be considered forerunner studies, as well the “Attitudes towards Europe” from 1962.