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ZA2400: ALLBUS/GGSS 1994 (Allgemeine Bevölkerungsumfrage der Sozialwissenschaften/German General Social Survey 1994)

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  • (Dataset) 579 KBytes
  • ZA2400_v2-0-0.por (Dataset SPSS Portable) 4 MBytes
  • ZA2400_v2-0-0.sav (Dataset SPSS) 3 MBytes
  • ZA2400_v2-0-0_missing.sps (Dataset) 18 KBytes
  • ZA2400_Variablenliste.txt (Dataset) 27 KBytes


  • ZA2400_fb.pdf (Questionnaire) 5 MBytes


  • ZA2400_cdb.pdf (Codebook) 9 MBytes
  • ZA2400_cdb_Supplement_Alter.pdf (Codebook) 2 MBytes
  • ZA2400_cdb_Supplement_Erhebungsgebiet.pdf (Codebook) 2 MBytes
  • ZA2400_cdb_Supplement_Geschlecht.pdf (Codebook) 2 MBytes
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Other Documents

  • ZA2400_mb.pdf (Method Report) 6 MBytes
  • ZA2400_readme.pdf (Other Document) 36 KBytes
ZACAT online analysis and search in variable level documentation:
Allgemeine Bevölkerungsumfrage der Sozialwissenschaften ALLBUS 1994
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Bibliographic Citation

Citation Citation GESIS - Leibniz Institute for the Social Sciences (2017): ALLBUS/GGSS 1994 (Allgemeine Bevölkerungsumfrage der Sozialwissenschaften/German General Social Survey 1994). GESIS Data Archive, Cologne. ZA2400 Data file Version 2.0.0,
Study No.ZA2400
TitleALLBUS/GGSS 1994 (Allgemeine Bevölkerungsumfrage der Sozialwissenschaften/German General Social Survey 1994)
Current Version2.0.0, 2017-9-8,
Date of Collection02.1994 - 05.1994
Principal Investigator/ Authoring Entity, Institution
  • Allerbeck, Klaus R. - Universität Frankfurt
  • Allmendinger, Jutta - Universität München
  • Müller, Walter - Universität Mannheim
  • Opp, Karl-Dieter - Universität Leipzig
  • Pappi, Franz U. - Universität Mannheim
  • Scheuch, Erwin K. - Universität Köln
  • Ziegler, Rolf - Universität München


Abstract1.) Economic situations and occupational life: assessments of present and future economic situation in Germany and in respondent´s own federal state; assessment of current and future personal economic situation; education and occupation; fear of unemployment or loss of business; length of personal unemployment; social origin; evaluation of personal occupational success and expectations for the future; attitude towards personal occupation; fear of unemployment or loss of own business. 2.) Social inequality and the welfare state: self-assessment of social class; fair share in standard of living; evaluation of personal occupational success, comparison with father´s position; attitudes towards the German economic system and evaluation of welfare state measures; realization of personal ideas of success; evaluation of appropriate education opportunities for everyone; attitudes towards social differences and conditions for success; opinions on personal social security; stance on extension or reduction in social services; opinion on level of income in personal household. 3.) Attitudes towards and contacts with foreigners living in Germany: citizenship; scale of attitudes towards foreigners; contacts with foreigners living in Germany or with foreign guest-workers (Gastarbeiter, split) within the family, at work, in the neighborhood, or among friends. 4.) Political attitudes: political interest; postmaterialism (importance of law and order, fighting rising prices, free expression of opinions, and influence on governmental decisions); self-placement on a left-right continuum; confidence in public institutions and organizations (public health service, federal constitutional court, federal parliament (Bundestag), city or municipal administration, armed forces, churches, judiciary, television, newspapers, universities, federal government, trade unions, police, employment offices, retirement insurance, employers´ association, European Community Commission, European Parliament, European Court of Justice); party-sympathy-scales for the CDU, SPD, CSU, F.D.P., The Greens (Bündnis 90 / Die Grünen), Republicans (Republikaner), PDS; opinion on the performance of the political system in Germany (political support). 5.) Attitudes relating to the process of German re-unification: attitude towards the demand for increased willingness to make sacrifices in the West and more patience in the East; more advantages for East or West through re-unification; the future in the East depends on the willingness of eastern Germans to make an effort; strangeness of citizens in the other part of Germany; performance pressure in the new states; attitude towards dealing with the Stasi-past of individuals; evaluation of socialism as an idea. 6.) ALLBUS-Demography: Details about the respondent: gender; month and year of birth, age; geographical origin and citizenship; migration to East or West Germany; place of residence (federal state, administrative region, size of municipality, BIK-type of municipality, Boustedt-type of municipality) and length of residence; religious denomination, frequency of church attendance; voting intention (Sonntagsfrage); general education, vocational training; employment status; details about current occupation, length of employment, industrial sector, affiliation to public service, supervisory functions, working hours per week; date of termination of full- or part-time employment; details about former occupation; length of unemployment; respondent´s income; marital status. Details about respondent´s current spouse: general education, vocational training; employment status; details about current occupation. Details about respondent´s steady extra-marital partner: common household; distribution of household chores; month and year of birth, age; general education, vocational training; employment status; details about current occupation. Details about respondent´s parents: general education and vocational training of father and mother; father´s occupation. Composition of household: size of household; household income; type of dwelling. Details about household members: relation to respondent; gender; month and year of birth, age; marital status. Respondent´s current memberships (Deutscher Gewerkschaftsbund (DGB, blue-collar union), Deutsche Angestelltengewerkschaft (DAG, white-collar union), other union, political party). 7.) Data on the interview (paradata): beginning and end of interview; date of interview; length of interview; presence of other people during the interview (presence of spouse, partner, children, relatives, other persons); willingness of respondent to cooperate. Data on the interviewer: gender, age, educational level, identification of interviewer. 8.) Family and changing gender roles II (ISSP): attitude towards employment of mothers and married women; role distribution of man and woman in occupation and household; preferred extent of employment for women during different stages of child raising; attitudes towards marriage, single-parenting, cohabitation before marriage, and divorce; the ideal number of children; views on the significance of children; opinion on separation of spouses with and without children; obedience or independent thinking as the more important educational goal; employment of mother during childhood of respondent; current frequency of visits with one´s mother; personal divorce; living with spouse or other partner; prior divorce of current partner; previous co-habitation without subsequent marriage; views on paid maternal leave, financial aid for working parents, and on abortion; opinion on pre-marital sexual intercourse, sexual intercourse between minors, marital infidelity, and homosexuality of adults; experience with sexual harassment at the workplace; management of income in marriage or partnership; allocation of duties in the household; division of gainful employment and principal earner in partnership; gainful employment in various phases of child raising; general attitudes towards employment. 9.) Added value: Inglehart-index; family typology, classification of private households (according to Porst and Funk); International Standard Classification of Occupations (ISCO 1968, 1988); occupational prestige (according to Treiman); magnitude prestige (according to Wegener); occupational meta-classification (according to Terwey); class position (according to Goldthorpe); weights.
Categories Categories
  • Society, Culture
Topics Topics
  • 1.5 Employment
  • 2.2 Migration
  • 5.8 Social behaviour and attitudes
  • 11.5 Mass political behaviour, attitudes/opinion
  • 11.6 Government, political systems and organisation
  • 13 Social stratification and groupings
  • 13.3 Family life and marriage
  • 13.4 Gender and gender roles
  • 13.10 Social and occupational mobility
  • 14.1 Specific social services: use and provision
  • 17.4 Economic conditions and indicators
  • 17.6 Economic systems and development


Geographic Coverage
  • Germany (DE)
UniverseAll persons (German and non-German) who resided in private households and were born before 1 January 1976.
Analysis Unit Analysis Unit
  • Individual
Sampling Procedure Sampling Procedure
  • Probability: Stratified: Disproportional
  • Probability: Multistage
Sample of individuals: Two stage disproportionate random sample in western Germany (incl. West Berlin) and eastern Germany (incl. East Berlin). In the first sample stage 104 municipalities (Gemeinden) in western Germany and 47 municipalities (Gemeinden) in eastern Germany were selected with a probability proportional to their number of adult residents; in the second sample stage 40 persons (in large cities a corresponding multiple thereof) were selected at random from the municipal registers of residents. Targeted individuals who did not have adequate knowledge of German to conduct the interview were treated as systematic unit non-responses.
Mode of Collection Mode of Collection
  • Face-to-face interview: Paper-and-pencil (PAPI)
  • Self-administered questionnaire: Paper
Personal interview with standardized questionnaire (PAPI - Paper and Pencil Interviewing), additional self-completion questionnaire (drop off) for ISSP
Time Method Time Method
  • Cross-section
Kind of Data Kind of Data
  • Numeric
Date of Collection
  • 02.1994 - 05.1994

Errata & Versions

VersionDate, Name, DOI
2.0.0 (current version)2017-9-8 Updated for publishing in ZACAT
1.0.02010-4-13 Version number created automatically (implementation of a uniform versioning policy) (Publication Year unknown)
Errata in current version
2018-11-12Stata: v29, v30, v61, v62, v74, v75, v335, v338, v179, v180, v207, v208, v215, v216For Stata data sets: Unlabeled missing values with decimal places have to be recoded to integer values and labels have to be added. For correction of the Stata dataset a patch was provided together with the Stata dataset. Please download
Version changes

Further Remarks

NotesRespondents from the area of the new federal states are oversampled so that analysts can obtain a more detailed picture of this portion of the population. In part a questionnaire with two split versions was used: In the questions about ethnocentrism, the term guest-worker (Gastarbeiter), which was used in previous ALLBUS surveys, was replaced by foreigners living in Germany in 50% of the sample. A second version of this data set with a shortened demography module is available as ALLBUScompact 1994 (ZA No. 3717).
Number of Units: 3450
Number of Variables: 441
Data Type: -
Analysis System(s): SPSS, Stata


  • Braun, Michael; Mohler, Peter Ph.: Die Allgemeine Bevölkerungsumfrage der Sozialwissenschaften (ALLBUS). Rückblick und Ausblick in die neunziger Jahre. In: ZUMA-Nachrichten 29, 1991, S. 7-28.
  • Terwey, Michael: ALLBUS: Das Programm und Erweiterungen des bestehenden Angebots. In: ZA-Information 42, 1998, S. 33-43.
  • Terwey, Michael: ALLBUS: A German General Social Survey. Schmollers Jahrbuch 120, 2000, S. 151-158.
  • Terwey, Michael: Zum aktuellen Wandel im Zugriff auf ALLBUS-Materialien und zur ALLBUS-Nutzung in Publikationen. In: ZA-Information 53, 2003, S. 195-202.
  • Veröffentlichungsreihe "Blickpunkt Gesellschaft": Müller, Walter; Mohler, Peter Ph.; Erbslöh, Barbara; Wasmer, Martina (Hrsg.): Blickpunkt Gesellschaft: Einstellungen und Verhalten der Bundesbürger. Opladen: Westdeutscher Verlag 1990.
  • Mohler, Peter Ph.; Bandilla, Wolfgang (Hrsg.): Blickpunkt Gesellschaft: 2. Einstellungen und Verhalten der Bundesbürger in Ost und West. Opladen: Westdeutscher Verlag 1992.
  • Braun, Michael; Mohler, Peter Ph. (Hrsg.): Blickpunkt Gesellschaft: 3. Einstellungen und Verhalten der Bundesbürger. Opladen: Westdeutscher Verlag 1994.
  • Braun, Michael; Mohler, Peter Ph. (Hrsg.): Blickpunkt Gesellschaft: 4. Soziale Ungleichheit in Deutschland. Opladen: Westdeutscher Verlag 1998.
  • Alba, Richard; Schmidt, Peter; Wasmer, Martina (Hrsg.): Blickpunkt Gesellschaft: 5. Deutsche und Ausländer: Freunde, Fremde oder Feinde? Wiesbaden: Westdeutscher Verlag 2000.
  • Koch, Achim; Wasmer, Martina; Schmidt, Peter (Hrsg.): Blickpunkt Gesellschaft: 6. Politische Partizipation in der Bundesrepublik Deutschland. Empirische Befunde und theoretische Erklärungen. Opladen: Leske + Budrich 2001.
  • Alba, Richard; Schmidt, Peter; Wasmer, Martina (Hrsg.): Germans or Foreigners? Attitudes Towards Ethnic Minorities in Post-Reunification Germany. New York und Houndmills: Palgrave Macmillan 2003.
Relevant full texts
from SSOAR (automatically assigned)


Research Data Centre
    The German General Social Survey (ALLBUS) collects up-to-date data on attitudes, behavior, and social structure in Germany. Every two years since 1980 a representative cross section of the population is surveyed using both constant and variable questions. The ALLBUS data become available to interested parties for research and teaching as soon as they are processed and documented.