GESIS - DBK - ZA5958

ZA5958: SIMCUR (Social Integration of Migrant Children - Uncovering Family and School Factors Promoting Resilience)

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Bibliographic Citation

Citation Citation Leyendecker, Birgit; Mesman, Judi; Oppedal, Brit (2016): SIMCUR (Social Integration of Migrant Children - Uncovering Family and School Factors Promoting Resilience). GESIS Data Archive, Cologne. ZA5958 Data file Version 1.0.0,
Study No.ZA5958
TitleSIMCUR (Social Integration of Migrant Children - Uncovering Family and School Factors Promoting Resilience)
Current Version1.0.0, 2016-11-29,
Date of Collection09.2009 - 06.2014
Principal Investigator/ Authoring Entity, Institution
  • Leyendecker, Birgit - Fakultät für Psychologie / Interdisziplinäres Zentrum für Familienforschung (ICFR) an der Ruhr-Universität Bochum
  • Mesman, Judi - University of Leiden, The Netherlands
  • Oppedal, Brit - Norwegian Institute of Public Health, Oslo, Norway


AbstractThe main objective of the SIMCUR research project is to uncover the processes underlying developmental resilience in children from immigrant families during the transitions to primary and secondary education in three European countries. These processes are examined at the levels of the individual, the family, the school, and the community. By comparing children in Germany, the Netherlands, and Norway, the study also elucidates the impact of broader societal influences. In a longitudinal cohort design based on the two school transitions, we studied 880 migrant families with origins in Turkey allowing across- country comparisons. Mastering major educational transitions is a critical indicator of social integration and is related to individual psychosocial adaptation. For the primary school transition, 364 children from Turkish migrant families (cohort 1) were assessed at ages 5, 6, and 7 in the three participating countries. For the secondary school transition, we assessed 256 children in a second cohort of children at ages 12, 13, and 14. Because this transition takes place earlier in Germany, this country had an extra cohort of 147 children assessed at ages 9, 10, and 11. At each assessment, variables from all levels of functioning are measured using multiple methods (behavioral observation, interviews, tests, and surveys), obtained from multiple sources (mothers, fathers and children). Parents 1. Mother questionnaire: Category 1: Background Family situation: relation to the child / father; caregiver; number of children, marital status; health; education, work and economic situation: years of schooling, ISCED; gainful employment; working hours; total income; neighborhood: managing to make it (length of residence), NICHD (National Institute of Child Health and Human Development); Collective Efficacy Scale; activities at home: literacy and media at home; language use in reading and watching TV; language: language proficiency Turkish and majority language; importance of child language use; language use in Turkish and majority language; culture: MEIM-R (Multigroup Ethnic Identity Measure - revised); questions from ICSEY study (International Comparative Study on Ethnocultural Youth; acculturation stress; discrimination; religion: religious affiliation; role of religion in parenting. Category 2: Child Behavior: CBQ (Child Behavior Questionnaire), EATQ-R (Early Adolescent Temperament Questionnaire - revised); parenting: discipline; EMBU (Egna Minnen Beträffande Uppfostran (´My memories of upbringing´); aspirations and expectations: schooling you would lke/actually expect your child to complete; school: child preschool attendance; parent-teacher involvement, parent-teacher responsibility, confidence in school/teacher; get ready for school; transition; strengths and difficulties: SDQ (Strength and Difficulties Questionnaire); friends: number of friends; frequency of playing; language: child´s language use. Category 3: Yourself Your life: SWLS (The Satisfaction with Life Scale); task division; social network: Oslo 3-item social support scale; relationship to neighbors; daily life: daily hassles; relationship: VGP (Vragenlijist voor Gezins Problemen); feelings: CES-D 10 (Center for Epidemiologic Studies Short Depression Scale); family: FAD (Family Assessment Device); values: perceived achievement values; familiy collectivist values. Mother interview: Family history: family tree, reason for migration; legal status; neighborhood: NICHD (National Institute of Child Health and Human Development); managing to make it (Subscale: community services); car/driver´s license; living situation: living space; daily schedule: daily schedules; spare time; activities at home: media use at home. 2. Father questionnaire: Category 1: Background Language: language proficiency Turkish and majority language; importance of child; language use in Turkish and majority language; culture: MEIM-R (Multigroup Ethnic Identity Measure - revised); questions from ICSEY study (International Comparative Study on Ethnocultural Youth); acculturation stress; discrimination; religion: religious affiliation; role of religion in parenting. Category 2: Child Parenting: EMBU (Egna Minnen Beträffande Uppfostran (´My memories of upbringing´); school: parent-teacher-responsibility; SDQ (Strength and Difficulties Questionnaire). Category 3: Yourself Parenting: task division; relationship: VGP (Vragenlijist voor Gezins Problemen, Subscale: partner relationship/marital support); values: perceived achievement values. Child Category 1: Background Culture: MEIM-R (Multigroup Ethnic Identity Measure - revised); questions from ICSEY study (International Comparative Study on Ethnocultural Youth); discrimination: perceived ethnic discrimination; language: language proficiency Turkish and majority language; language use Turkish and majority language; religion: children´s practice of their beliefs; spirituality´s role in coping and everyday life; overall self-perception of religiousness or spirituality; activities at home: literacy and media at home. Category 2: Parents Parenting: EMBU (Egna Minnen Beträffande Uppfostran (´My memories of upbringing´) - short form); parental involvement: activities with mother and father. Category 3: Yourself Social Network: Social Network Inventory; composition of social network; functional and emotional support; monitoring: child disclosure; behavior: EATQ-R (Early Adolescent Temperament Questionnaire - revised, Subscales: activation control, inhibitory control, attention); SDQ (Strength and Difficulties Questionnaire); self-assertive efficacy; enlisting social resources; daily life: daily hassles. Category 4: School Motivation: motivation to start (new) school; expectations regarding start of new school; thoughts about school; aspirations and expectations: school aspirations and expectations; job aspirations and expectations; values: perceived parental achievement values; perceived contingency: perceived contingency scale for children; rules: breaking school rules (items from ICSEY International Comparative Study on Ethnocultural Youth); support: class support, CASSS (Child and adolescent support scale). Tests: Category 5: Tests Maternal sensitivity in task situation (EAS-mother-child interaction (video taped); behavioral Inhibition (Hearts and flowers (Dots Task); Working Memory (Digit Span forwards, backwards); inhibitory control (Delay Frustration Task; Language/Vocabulary: PPVT-4 The Peabody Picture Vocabulary Test (4th Ed.)(Turkish receptive vocabulary test), EOWPVT (Expressive one word picture vocabulary test - Majority language expressive vocabulary test); IQ: SON-R: Snijders-Oomen niet-verbale intelligentietest - revised, subtest: Analogies). Demography: child: age (date of birth: month, year); age in months; gender; nationality; parents: age (birthdate: month, year) of mother and father; age of mother and father at day of testing; nationality; relationship of respondent to child; number of children; birthdate and age of these children; child’s birth order; number of children living at home; other adults living in the household; new child born since last visit; birthday of new born child; changes since last visit; specified changes. Additionally coded was: child ID serial; child participated in waves 1, 2, 3; date of home visit; year of data collection; country of data collection; country of origin Turkey; child has a sibling in the study; mother ID for sibling families; language of questionnaire; date mother questionnaire completed; child’s teacher’s ID; child’s school ID.
Categories Categories
  • Family
  • Education, School Systems
  • Community, Living Environment
  • Religion and Weltanschauung
Topics Topics
  • 2.2 Migration
  • 5.5 Religion and values
  • 13.8 Minorities


Geographic Coverage
  • North Rhine-Westphalia (DE-NW)
  • Netherlands (NL)
  • Norway (NO)
UniverseChildren with a Turkish migration background and their parents living in Germany, Norway, or the Netherlands
Sampling Procedure Sampling Procedure
Non-probability Sample
Mode of Collection Mode of Collection
Self-administered questionnaire: Paper Educational measurements and tests Psychological measurements and tests Observation
Data CollectorRuhr-Universität Bochum, Germany Leiden University, The Netherlands Norwegian Institute of Public Health, Oslo, Norway
Date of Collection
  • 09.2009 - 06.2014

Errata & Versions

VersionDate, Name, DOI
1.0.0 (current version)2016-11-29 first archive edition
Errata in current version
Version changes

Further Remarks

Number of Units: 767
Number of Variables: 4543
Data Type: SPSS
Analysis System(s): SPSS, Stata


  • Emmen, R.A.G., Malda, M., Mesman, J., Van IJzendoorn, M. H., Prevoo, M. J. L., & Yeniad, N. (2013). Socioeconomic status and parenting in ethnic minority families: Testing a Minority Family Stress Model. Journal of Family Psychology, 27, 896-904.
  • Emmen, R.A.G., Malda, M., Mesman, J., Ekmekci, H., & Van IJzendoorn, M.H. (2012). Sensitive Parenting as a Cross-Cultural Ideal: Sensitivity Beliefs of Dutch, Moroccan, and Turkish Mothers in the Netherlands. Attachment and Human Development, 14, 601-619.
  • Garthus-Niegel, K. & Oppedal, B. (in press). (No) Time to Learn: School Effectiveness Temporalities in Norwegian 1st Grade Classrooms. Social Analysis, 59 (3), 41-61.
  • Garthus-Niegel, K., Oppedal, B., & Vike, H. (2015). Semantic models of host-immigrant relations in Norwegian education policies. Scandinavian Journal of Education Research, 60 (1), 48-71. DOI
  • Jäkel, J., Leyendecker, B., & Agache, A. (2015). Family and individual factors associated with Turkish immigrant and German children’s and adolescents mental health. Journal of Child and Family Studies, 24 (4), 1097-1105. DOI\%2Fs10826-014-9918-3
  • Kohl, K., Jäkel, J., & Leyendecker, B. (2015). Schlüsselfaktor elterliche Beteiligung: Warum Lehrkräfte türkischstämmige und deutsche Kinder aus belasteten Familien häufig als verhaltensauffällig einstufen. (Parental involvement in school is the key to teacher judgement of Turkish immigrant and German children’s behavior problems). Zeitschrift für Familienforschung/ Journal of Family Research, 27 (2), 193-207.
  • Kohl. K., Jäkel, J., Spiegler, O., Willard, J., & Leyendecker, B. (2014). Eltern und Schule – wie beurteilen türkischstämmige und deutsche Mütter sowie deutsche Lehrer elterliche Verantwortung und Beteiligung? Psychologie in Erziehung und Unterricht, 61 (2), 96-111. DOI
  • Leyendecker, B. & Agache, A. (2016). Engagement türkischstämmiger Väter im Familien- und Erziehungsalltag fördert das subjektive Wohlbefinden von Kindern. Praxis der Kinderpsychologie und Kinderpsychiatrie, 65, 57-74.
  • Leyendecker, B., Willard, J., Agache A., Jäkel, J., Spiegler, O. & Kohl, K. (2014). Learning a host country: A plea to strengthen parents‘ roles and to encourage children’s bilingual development. In Silbereisen, R., Shavit, Y., & Titzmann, P.F. (Eds.). The challenges of diaspora migration: Interdisciplinary perspectives on research in Israel and Germany (pp. 291-306). London, UK: Ashgate.
  • Prevoo, M.J.L., Malda, M.M., Mesman, J., & Van IJzendoorn, M.H. (2015). Within- and cross-language relations between oral language proficiency and school outcomes in bilingual children with an immigrant background: A meta-analytical study. Review of Educational Research, 86 (1), 237-276.
  • Prevoo, M. J. L., Malda, M., Mesman, J., Emmen, R. A. G., Yeniad, N., Van IJzendoorn, M. H., & Linting, M. (2014). Predicting ethnic minority children´s vocabulary from socioeconomic status, maternal language and home reading input: Different pathways for host and ethnic language. Journal of Child Language, 41, 963-984.
  • Prevoo, M.J.L., Mesman, J., Van IJzendoorn, M.H., & Pieper, S. (2011). Bilingual toddlers reap the language they sow: ethnic minority toddlers´ childcare attendance increases maternal host language use. Journal of Multilingual and Multicultural Development, 32, 561-576.
  • Spiegler, O., Verkuyten, M., Thijs, J., & Leyendecker, B. (2016). Low ethnic identity exploration undermines positive inter-ethnic relations: A study among Turkish immigrant-origin youth. Cultural Diversity and Ethnic Minority Psychology . DOI: 10.1037/cdp0000090
  • Spiegler, O., Leyendecker, B., & Kohl, K. (2015). Acculturation gaps between Immigrant Turkish Marriage Partners: Resource or source of distress? Journal of Cross-Cultural Psychology, 46 (5), 667-683. DOI 10.117/0022022115578686
  • Spiegler. O., Güngör, D., & Leyendecker, B. (in press). Muslim immigrant parents’ social status moderates the link between religious parenting and children’s identification with the heritage culture and host culture. Journal of Cross-Cultural Psychology.
  • Willard, J., Agache, A., Jäkel, J., Glück. C., & Leyendecker, B. (2014). Family factors predicting vocabulary in Turkish as a heritage language. Applied Psycholinguistics, 36 (4), 875-898. DOI 10.1017/S0142716413000544.
  • Yeniad, N., Malda, M., Mesman, J., Van IJzendoorn, M.H., & Pieper, S. (2013). Shifting ability predicts math and reading performance in children: A meta-analytical study. Learning and Individual Differences, 23, 1-9.
  • Yeniad, N., Malda, M.M., Mesman, J., Van IJzendoorn, M.H., Emmen, R.A.G., Prevoo, M.J.L. (2014). Cognitive flexibility in children across the transition to school: A longitudinal study. Cognitive Development, 31, 35-47.
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  • NORFACE Research Programme on Migration
    The Programme on Migration aims to build a new synergetic body of research, which will contribute to our theoretical understanding and knowledge in the area of Migration Research.