GESIS - DBK - ZA2490

ZA2490: Eurobarometer 41.0 (Mar-May 1994)

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  • ZA2490_missing_v1-1-0.sps (Dataset) 4 KBytes
  • ZA2490_v1-1-0.dta (Dataset Stata) 14 MBytes
  • ZA2490_v1-1-0.por (Dataset SPSS Portable) 23 MBytes
  • ZA2490_v1-1-0.sav (Dataset SPSS) 14 MBytes


  • ZA2490_bq_en.pdf (Questionnaire) 284 KBytes
  • ZA2490_bq_fr.pdf (Questionnaire) 285 KBytes
  • ZA2490_q_be-fr.pdf (Questionnaire) 2 MBytes
  • ZA2490_q_be-nl.pdf (Questionnaire) 2 MBytes
  • ZA2490_q_de-east.pdf (Questionnaire) 3 MBytes
  • ZA2490_q_de-west.pdf (Questionnaire) 2 MBytes
  • ZA2490_q_dk.pdf (Questionnaire) 2 MBytes
  • ZA2490_q_es.pdf (Questionnaire) 2 MBytes
  • ZA2490_q_fi.pdf (Questionnaire) 424 KBytes
  • ZA2490_q_fr.pdf (Questionnaire) 3 MBytes
  • ZA2490_q_gb.pdf (Questionnaire) 2 MBytes
  • ZA2490_q_gb_ni.pdf (Questionnaire) 3 MBytes
  • ZA2490_q_gr.pdf (Questionnaire) 2 MBytes
  • ZA2490_q_ie.pdf (Questionnaire) 2 MBytes
  • ZA2490_q_it.pdf (Questionnaire) 1 MByte
  • ZA2490_q_lu.pdf (Questionnaire) 2 MBytes
  • ZA2490_q_nl.pdf (Questionnaire) 2 MBytes
  • ZA2490_q_no.pdf (Questionnaire) 1 MByte
  • ZA2490_q_pt.pdf (Questionnaire) 2 MBytes


  • ZA2490_cdb.pdf (Codebook) 3 MBytes
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Eurobarometer 41.0 (Mar-May 1994) Trade Issues, Blood Donation, AIDS, and Smoking
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Bibliographic Citation

Citation Citation European Commission (2012): Eurobarometer 41.0 (Mar-May 1994). INRA, Brussels. GESIS Data Archive, Cologne. ZA2490 Data file Version 1.1.0,
Study No.ZA2490
TitleEurobarometer 41.0 (Mar-May 1994)
Other Titles
  • Trade Issues, Blood Donation, AIDS, and Smoking (Subtitle)
  • Standard Eurobarometer 41 (Alternative Title)
Current Version1.1.0, 2012-7-1,
Alternate IDs Alternate IDs
  • doi:10.3886/ICPSR06422.v4, 1998-02
Date of Collection08.03.1994 - 30.05.1994
Principal Investigator/ Authoring Entity, Institution
  • European Commission, Brussels; DG X - Information Communication Culture Surveys Research Analyses


AbstractThe major topics of this Eurobarometer are: 1. Product knowledge 2. Questions on Europe, European unification and the European Election 3. European currency 4. Image of countries and quality products 5. Tobacco and smoking 6. Donating blood and blood transfusion; danger of infection with AIDS. Topics: General contentment with life; satisfaction with democracy; interest in politics; personal opinion leadership. Product knowledge: knowledge about the term ´Feta´ (sheep cheese); general associations with this term and associated country; Feta as general term for a specific type of cheese or tied to a designation of origin; frequency of consumption of cheese in general and especially Feta. Questions on Europe: interest in European policies; frequency of obtaining news from television, radio and newspapers; assessment of personal degree of information about the EU (split: EC) and its institutions; significance of national membership in the EU (split: EC); advantageousness of EU membership (split: EC membership) for one´s own country; judgement on the speed of unification of the European countries; desired speed of an EU unification (split: EC); approval of a European Government responsible to a European Parliament; preference for national or European responsibility in selected political areas; satisfaction with the functioning of democracy in the EU (split: EC); attitude to a Europe-wide uniform currency, a European Central Bank, a common foreign policy and a common defense policy; support of the European Commission and the president by the European Parliament; attitude to the same rights for the European Parliament in comparison to the national governments; attitude to a right to vote for EC foreigners in municipal elections and to candidacy of EC foreigners in municipal elections; attitude to acceptance of responsibility by a European Government if a national government no longer is effective; attitude to the European domestic market; knowledge and judgement on the ´White Book´ on employment, growth and competition in Europe; extent to which informed about the European Parliament; knowledge about the date for the next European Election; intent to participate in the election and party preference; most important reasons for non-participation in the European Election; voting for party, voting for candidate and the importance of political contents for the voting decision; importance of national topics for one´s own voting decision in the European Election; most important topics in the personal decision for the European Election; desire for more power for the European Parliament; perceived acceleration of border crossing since January 1993; knowledge about the changes in taxation of products in crossing borders within the EC; personally profiting from this new ruling; expected changes in price level and in product selection through elimination of border checks; future prospects of the European Union regarding joining by further countries, a uniform European currency, common military forces and a uniform state in which studies, work and life know no national borders. European currency: degree of familiarity of the ECU and most important source of information; use of the ECU up to now as well as intended future use; knowledge about current usability of the ECU and interest in further information; expected effects of the replacement of national currency by ECU; attitude to immediate as well as future introduction of the ECU; general approval of a common currency. Image of countries and quality products: degree of familiarity of symbols for the designation of quality products; most important purchase criteria for products (other than food); requirement of a product with the designation quality product; selected countries (Germany, Spain, France, Italy, United Kingdom, EC, USA, Japan) with which one soonest would associate production of quality products. Personal native language; detailed information on European languages spoken in one´s household as well as those learned and mastered by the respondent. Tobacco and smoking: selected reasons that could move a smoker to quit smoking; general attitude to smoking and public smoking ban (scale); smoking as individual decision or a matter also impacting others and to this extent needing to be regulated publicly. Donating blood and blood transfusion: media and information material with which one recently received information on donating blood; knowledge test about the usability of blood, blood plasma as well as about blood groups, blood pressure, hemophilia and non-perishability of blood; knowledge about frequency of ability to donate plasma or blood; personally donating blood plasma; frequency of personally donating blood and plasma; considering personally donating blood or plasma; last personal blood donation; reasons for refusing to donate blood in general as well as particularly in the last three years; receipt of a blood transfusion or knowledge of a person who has received a blood transfusion; assumed reasons why people donate blood or why they do not donate blood; personal acceptance of donor blood or only one´s own blood; attitude to increased costs of trade in blood donated free; acceptance of financial or other compensation for blood donors or blood plasma donors; knowledge about the plan of the EU to satisfy the need for blood and blood products from voluntary and free donation of blood by EC citizens; judgement on the importance of such a plan; preference for a national or EC-managed action; assessment of the development of safety of blood transfusions in the last few years; assumption that blood and blood products from one´s own country are the safest; countries of origin of the safest blood; expected influence of AIDS on the safety of blood products, donation of blood, blood transfusion, recept of an injection and of an operation; opinion on continual praesence of the topic AIDS; desire for more information about AIDS; opinion on the relativly high costs of AIDS research; personal impact of the topic AIDS; knowledge and opinion about the paths of communication and risk of infection with AIDS (scale); assumed increase in the risk of cancer from consumption of selected food products. Demography: self-assessment on a left-right continuum (split, 5-point scale and 10-point scale); party allegiance; party preference; behavior at the polls in the last national election; union membership of respondent or member of household; possession of durable consumer goods; self-assessment of social class; religiousness; possession of a telephone. The following question was also posed in Belgium: degree of familiarity of the Office Humanitaire (ECHO). The following question was also posed in Denmark: judgement on the change of term from EC to EU. The following questions were also posed in Germany: opinion on the EC contribution to solving the current economic problems in the country; attitude to the level of German EC contributions. The following question was also posed in Greece: influence of the EC domestic market on daily life. The following question was also posed in Spain: familiarity of the most important election campaign topics in the European Election. The following question was also posed in France: the significance of the Maastricht Accord for the protection of the Franc. The following question was also posed in Ireland: attitude to Irish participation in a common European defense agreement. The following question was also posed in Italy: expected direct participation of the country in the planned currency union. The following question was also posed in Portugal: attitude to extension of the EU to Austria, Sweden, Finland and Norway. The following questions were also posed in Norway: judgement on the EES Agreement; attitude to Norway´s joining the EU as an important and lasting political solution for the country; agreement or rejection of a referendum on joining; significance of the result of the referendums in Sweden and Finland for one´s own attitude to Norway´s joining the EU as well as for the general result of the referendum in Norway; importance of the negotiations of Sweden and Finland for Norway´s joining; preferred sequence or simultaneously conducting the referendums in Sweden and Norway; personal behavior at the polls given a positive result of the referendums in Sweden and Finland; expected influence on daily life of Norway´s joining; positive or negative influence of Norway´s negotiations with the EU on one´s own attitude to joining the EU; trust in selected Norwegian organizations and the media regarding their information about the EU; expected positive or negative effects of Norwegian membership on selected areas of life; personal behavior at the polls in the referendum on Norway´s joining the EC in 1972; interest in the negotiations between the EC and Norway and expected future membership of the country. The following questions were also posed in Greece: knowledge about the EC (split: EU) presidency of one´s own country; importance of this presidency for one´s own country. The following question was also posed to women: areas in which the women´s program and women´s policies of the EC (split: EU) have had a positive effect, occupationally or privately. The following questions were also posed to smokers: preferred form of use of tobacco; reasons that could move the respondent personally to quit smoking. Also encoded was: date of interview; length of interview; number of persons present during interview; willingness of respondent to cooperate.
Categories Categories
  • International Institutions, Relations, Conditions
  • Drug abuse, alcohol and smoking
  • General health and well-being
  • Specific diseases, disorders and medical conditions
  • International politics and organisations
  • Political behaviour and attitudes
  • Government, political systems and organisations
  • Elections
  • Consumption and consumer behaviour
  • Economic systems and development
Old Topics Old Topics
  • 7.1 Drug abuse, alcohol and smoking
  • 7.3 General health
  • 7.8 Specific diseases and medical conditions
  • 8 Trade, industry and markets
  • 11.2 International politics and organisation
  • 11.5 Mass political behaviour, attitudes/opinion
  • 11.6 Government, political systems and organisation
  • 11.7 Elections
  • 17.3 Consumption/consumer behaviour
  • 17.6 Economic systems and development


Geographic Coverage
  • Belgium (BE)
  • Germany (DE)
  • Denmark (DK)
  • Finland (FI)
  • France (FR)
  • Greece (GR)
  • Ireland (IE)
  • Italy (IT)
  • Luxembourg (LU)
  • Netherlands (NL)
  • Northern Ireland (GB-NIR)
  • Norway (NO)
  • Portugal (PT)
  • Spain (ES)
  • Great Britain (GB-GBN)
UniversePersons 15 years old and older.
Sampling Procedure Sampling Procedure
Multi-stage stratified random sample
Mode of Collection Mode of Collection
Oral survey with standardized questionnaire
Data CollectorMarketing Unit, Bruessel; GFK Danmark, Kopenhagen; SAMPLE INSTITUT, Moelln; KEME, Athen; CIMEI, Madrid; TMO Consultants, Paris; LANSDOWNE Market Research, Dublin; Ulster Marketing Surveys, Nordirland; PRAGMA, Rom; ILRES, Luxemburg; NIPO, Amsterdam; NORMA, Lissabon; NOP Corporate and Financial, London; Nielsen Norge, Norwegen; Marketing Development Centre, Finnland INRA EUROPE, Brussels (Fieldwork co-ordination)
Date of Collection
  • 08.03.1994 - 30.05.1994 (All countries)
  • 05.04.1994 - 19.04.1994 (France)
  • 03.04.1994 - 30.04.1994 (Belgium)
  • 11.04.1994 - 29.04.1994 (Netherlands)
  • 11.04.1994 - 29.04.1994 (West Germany)
  • 11.04.1994 - 28.04.1994 (East Germany)
  • 09.04.1994 - 30.04.1994 (Italy)
  • 29.03.1994 - 10.05.1994 (Luxembourg)
  • 08.04.1994 - 04.05.1994 (Denmark)
  • 05.04.1994 - 30.05.1994 (Ireland)
  • 20.03.1994 - 04.05.1994 (Great Britain)
  • 13.04.1994 - 28.04.1994 (Northern Ireland)
  • 04.04.1994 - 22.04.1994 (Greece)
  • 10.04.1994 - 29.04.1994 (Spain)
  • 11.04.1994 - 03.05.1994 (Portugal)
  • 08.03.1994 - 30.04.1994 (Norway)
  • 08.03.1994 - 30.05.1994 (Finland)

Errata & Versions

VersionDate, Name, DOI
1.1.0 (current version)2012-7-1 Archive edition update
1.0.02010-4-13 Version number created automatically (implementation of a uniform versioning policy) (Publication Year unknown)
Errata in current version
2014-3-14V463, INCOME, NO FIIncome for FINLAND should read "Finnish markka per YEAR". Correct income categories for NORWAY per MONTH according to the Norwegian questionnaire are: (1) "Less than 5000 KR.", (2) "5000 to 7999 KR.", (3) "8000 to 9999 KR.", (4) "10000 to 13999 KR.", (5) "14000 to 13999 KR.", (6) "17000 to 19999 KR.", (7) "20000 to 22999 KR.", (8) "23000 to 25999 KR.", (9) "26000 to 29999 KR.", (10) "30000 to 34999 KR.", (11) "35000 to 39999 KR.", (12) "40000 KR. OR MORE".
2016-4-4V417, LEFT-RIGHT-PLACEMENTThe missing values coded ´0´ represent respondents answering to questionnaire SPLIT B.
2016-4-4V418, LEFT-RIGHT-PLACEMENTThe missing values coded ´9´ represent respondents which did not answer answer ´1´ (rather left) to question D1AA (V417). They include SPLIT B and respondents from Norway and Finland.
2016-4-4V419, LEFT-RIGHT-PLACEMENTThe missing values coded ´9´ represent respondents which did not answer answer ´3´ (rather right) to question D1AA (V417). They include SPLIT B and respondents from Norway and Finland.
2016-4-4V420, LEFT-RIGHT-PLACEMENTThe missing values coded ´0´ represent respondents answering to questionnaire SPLIT A.
Version changes
Changes between version 1.1.0 and it's previous version
DateSubjectDescriptionCorrection Description
2012-7-1ISOCNTRYalphanumeric country id variable2012-7-1variable added
2012-7-1VERSIONdataset version id variable2012-7-1variable added
2012-7-1v460, value 3value label incorrect2012-7-1value label corrected
2012-7-1wght_allweighting factor for all samples not available2012-7-1weighting factor produced
2012-7-1V473, values 22-30value label missing2012-7-1value label added

Further Remarks

NotesA split questionnaire was used. In one part of the survey the abbreviation EC was replaced by EU. In this Eurobarometer for the first time an oversample was drawn of persons not having the nationality of the residents of the survey country, but coming from one of the other EC countries. This oversample, not drawn in Norway and Finland, had an experimental character and produced an additional 373 interviews. A further oversample referred to the persons responsible for purchases. About 300 respondents per country (except for Northern Ireland, Finland and Norway) were additionally selected and interviewed with a part of the questionnaire (demography, the questions on product knowledge of Feta as well as some questions on satisfaction with democracy and interest in politics). In the non-EU-countries Finland and Norway only a selection of questions was posed. The total of cases is distributed among the individual countries as follows: Belgium 1393 cases, Denmark 1305 cases, Federal Republic of Germany (West) 1415 cases, Federal Republic of Germany (East) 1423 cases, Finland 1001 cases, Greece 1312 cases, Great Britain 1392 cases, Spain 1303 cases, France 1335 cases, Ireland 1364 cases, Italy 1358 cases, Luxembourg 925 cases, Netherlands 1340 cases, Northern Ireland 306 cases, Norway 1003 cases, Portugal 1302 cases. Earlier Eurobarometers (2-40) are archived under ZA Study Nos. 0986-0995, 1036-1039, 1206-1209, 1318-1321, 1541-1544, 1712-1715, 1750-1753, 1960-1962, 2031-2033, 2081, 2141, 2241-2243, 2294-2295, 2346, 2347 as well as 2459. A cumulated data set of the Eurobarometers (1970-2002) with selected trend questions is archived under ZA Study No. 3521.
Number of Units: 19477
Number of Variables: 543
Data Type: -
Analysis System(s): SPSS, Stata


  • Europäische Kommission (Hrsg.): Eurobarometer 41.0: Die öffentliche Meinung in der Europäischen Gemeinschaft. Brüssel: Selbstverlag 1994.
  • Nicole Malpas, INRA (Europe) pour la Commission Europeene, DG X.A.7: Les femmes et l´election du parlament europeen. Bruxelles, Decembre 1994.
  • INRA (Europe) for the European Commission, Directorate General: Europeans and Blood. Brussels, February 1995 (also available in French).
  • Cees van der Eijk, Mark N. Franklin Choosing Europe? The European Electorate and National Politics in the Face of Union. The University of Michigan Press. Ann Arbor, 1996 (ISBN 0-472-10357-1)
  • European Journal of Political Research. Special Issue: Political Representation in the European Parliament. Volume 32, No. 2 (October 1997)
Relevant full texts
from SSOAR (automatically assigned)


Research Data Centre
  •  EB - Standard and Special Eurobarometer
    Since the early nineteen seventies the European Commission´s “Standard and Special Eurobarometer” are regularly monitoring the public opinion in the European Union member countries at times. Interviews are conducted face-to-face, in each spring and each autumn, at all times based on new samples with a size 1000 respondents per country. Separate samples are drawn for Northern Ireland and East Germany. After the EU enlargement in 2004, remaining and new Candidate Countries are also regularly included in selected surveys. The Standard Eurobarometer modules ask for attitudes towards European unification, institutions and policies, complemented by measurements for general socio-political orientations, as well as by respondent and household demographics. Intermittently special Eurobarometer modules extensively address topics, such as environment, science and technology, health or family issues, social or ethnic exclusion, quality of life etc. The “European Communities Studies” 1970-1973 can be considered forerunner studies, as well the “Attitudes towards Europe” from 1962.