GESIS - DBK - ZA2690

ZA2690: Eurobarometer 44.1 (Nov-Dec 1995)

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  • ZA2690_missing_v1-0-1.sps (Dataset) 4 KBytes
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  • ZA2690_v1-0-1.por (Dataset SPSS Portable) 37 MBytes
  • ZA2690_v1-0-1.sav (Dataset SPSS) 20 MBytes


  • ZA2690_bq_en.pdf (Questionnaire) 367 KBytes
  • ZA2690_bq_fr.pdf (Questionnaire) 305 KBytes
  • ZA2690_q_at.pdf (Questionnaire) 2 MBytes
  • ZA2690_q_be-fr.pdf (Questionnaire) 4 MBytes
  • ZA2690_q_be-nl.pdf (Questionnaire) 4 MBytes
  • ZA2690_q_de-east.pdf (Questionnaire) 4 MBytes
  • ZA2690_q_de-west.pdf (Questionnaire) 4 MBytes
  • ZA2690_q_dk.pdf (Questionnaire) 4 MBytes
  • ZA2690_q_es.pdf (Questionnaire) 3 MBytes
  • ZA2690_q_fi-fi.pdf (Questionnaire) 2 MBytes
  • ZA2690_q_fi-se.pdf (Questionnaire) 1 MByte
  • ZA2690_q_fr.pdf (Questionnaire) 3 MBytes
  • ZA2690_q_gb.pdf (Questionnaire) 2 MBytes
  • ZA2690_q_gb_ni.pdf (Questionnaire) 4 MBytes
  • ZA2690_q_gr.pdf (Questionnaire) 5 MBytes
  • ZA2690_q_ie.pdf (Questionnaire) 4 MBytes
  • ZA2690_q_it.pdf (Questionnaire) 3 MBytes
  • ZA2690_q_lu-fr.pdf (Questionnaire) 1 MByte
  • ZA2690_q_lu-lu.pdf (Questionnaire) 1 MByte
  • ZA2690_q_nl.pdf (Questionnaire) 5 MBytes
  • ZA2690_q_no.pdf (Questionnaire) 3 MBytes
  • ZA2690_q_pt.pdf (Questionnaire) 3 MBytes
  • ZA2690_q_se.pdf (Questionnaire) 1 MByte


  • ZA2690_cdb.pdf (Codebook) 5 MBytes
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Eurobarometer 44.1 (Nov-Dec 1995) Education and Training Throughout Life, and the Common European Currency,
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Bibliographic Citation

Citation Citation European Commission (2012): Eurobarometer 44.1 (Nov-Dec 1995). INRA, Brussels. GESIS Data Archive, Cologne. ZA2690 Data file Version 1.0.1,
Study No.ZA2690
TitleEurobarometer 44.1 (Nov-Dec 1995)
Other Titles
  • Education and Training Throughout Life and the Common European Currency (Subtitle)
  • Standard Eurobarometer 44 (Alternative Title)
Current Version1.0.1, 2012-7-1,
Alternate IDs Alternate IDs
  • doi:10.3886/ICPSR06723.v1, 1995-12
Date of Collection11.11.1995 - 15.01.1996
Principal Investigator/ Authoring Entity, Institution
  • European Commission, Brussels; DG X - Information Communication Culture Surveys Research Analyses
Contributor, Institution, Role
  • GESIS - Distributor
  • GESIS - HostingInstitution


AbstractAttitude to the EU, European unification, the currency union. Purchase preferences of foods. Defense questions of the EU. Third world. Attitude of young people to education. Topics: Expected economic situation for the next year and expectations regarding the financial situation of one´s own household, the employment situation in the country, one´s own job situation as well as regarding general contentment with life; interest in politics; personal opinion leadership; attitude to membership of the country in the EU and advantageousness of membership for one´s own country; judgement on the speed of unification of the EU and desired progress of this unification (scale); attitude to a common European currency; self-assessment of extent to which informed about the European currency; knowledge about the convergence criteria for participants in the common currency specified in the Maastricht Treaty; knowledge about the two countries that have a special arrangement regarding their opportunity to join the common currency; knowledge about the time of introduction of the currency; hope, concerns and general attitudes to the effects of the European currency (scale); preference for an introduction on one day or a gradual introduction of the new bank notes; desire for more slow or short-term transition time in dual pricing of products; expected transition difficulties in the introduction of the new currency; preferred information provider for the introduction of the European currency; preferred institutions and media for conveying this information; vision of Europe in the year 2010; European citizenship; significant European controversies and events noticed in the media; relative significance of decision-making European institutions; preference for national or common European decisions in selected areas (split: presentation of different topics and political areas); hopes or fears in the Common Market and the European Union; attitude to a common European foreign and security policy; attitude to a European Government; current and desired role of the European Parliament; core areas for the European Parliament; perceived representation of interests of the people through institutions such as the European Commission, the national government, the European Parliament, the national parliament and the Council of Ministers; the significance of the European Parliament for the EU; actual and desired significance of parliament; knowledge about the government conference and its primary topics; further desired topics for the government conference; attitude to a ´Europe of two speeds´. Food: frequency of purchasing selected foods; brand, quality sign, country of origin, traditional character, external presentation, place of sale, price and date of production as most important decision criteria in purchase of selected product types; most important characteristics of a quality product in the area of foods; trust in quality symbols; knowledge and significance of the abbreviations R.O.C., D.O.C., P.D.O and P.G.I.; willingness to pay a higher price for food with guaranteed designation of origin; frequency of consuming as well as shopping place or place of consumption of selected foods produced in traditional manner; most important provider of information on traditionally produced foods; particular attention to consumption of foods of designated origin in restaurants; attitude to a guarantee of the European Union for the designation of origin and the production process of foods. EU: characterization of actual and desired functioning of the EU; assumed excess of power of individual countries in the decisions of the EU and in particular in the Council of Ministers (split: open/closed question); parties, organizations or media representing one´s own concepts of Europe; attitude to acceptance of the Czech Republic, Hungary, Poland and Slovakia in the EU; attitude to agricultural subsidies for newly joining Eastern European countries; most important rights of a European citizen in the other member countries; most important political goals of the European Union in the next 10 years. EU as preventer of war between the member countries; preferred extent of obligation to send troops from the member countries given a hypothetical mission outside of the European Union; deployment of troops only with agreement of the European Parliament; reduction of the standard of social security in Europe to increase international competitive ability; hopes on reduction in unemployment with cooperation between the member countries of the European Union; attitude to an expansion or reduction of the rights of foreigners in the country; preference for decisions of the political leaders oriented on goals or the needs of the citizens; feeling of political effectiveness on national as well as European level; longer stays abroad; assessment of the significance and preference for common Europe-wide or national treatment of topics such as reduction of regional differences, provision of energy, equality in prosperity, fight against terrorism, support of poorer countries, defense of European interests against the great economic and political powers, foreign countries, environmental protection, defense and strengthening relations to Eastern Europe. Third world: sources of information about Third World countries; perceived topics from the Third World; areas of individual information deficits about the Third World; attitude to support of the Third World; desired goals and actual conduct of the industrialized countries in support of the Third World; organizations or political institutions providing the financially most extensive and most sensible foreign aid; conditions, that should be placed in the award of foreign aid money; classification of European support for the Third World as humanitary emergency action or long-term development work. In Belgium, the Netherlands, France, Greece, Italy, Spain, Germany and in the United Kingdom the following additional questions were posed: stating the member countries, the respondent knows well; stating the countries reliable politically and in business as well as working economically efficiently; stating the countries particularly obligated to the European Union; probability of a common currency in the year 1999; judgement on the current political as well as economic situation in Italy on a scale. The following additional questions were posed to young people between the ages of 15 to 24 years: most important tasks of the school; technical training or acquisition of social skills as task of school education; satisfaction with achievement of these goals; most important educational goals and character traits of a person; parents, school or work environment as responsible to develop these educational goals; adequate effort of parents for the interests of children; judgement on companies in acceptance of their responsibility for young people in school; school satisfaction; reasons for possible dissatisfaction; assessment of task fulfillment of the school in view of preparation of children for today´s society; reasons for possible dissatisfaction; broad general education or specialization as preferred measure to deal with rapid social changes; attitude to the statement ´learning ends with school´; attitude to further education in the personal area as well as in the area of the working world; participation in voluntary and compulsory further education events in the last year; attitude to life-long government support for further education measures; preferred measures to make participation in such education measures easier; institution that should provide the finances for further education; personal willingness to accept costs in further education events; possible role of the EU in further education; most important reasons for respondent to continually participate in further education; adequate preparation of children through school in view of the information society; better school training through use of new communication technologies; expected changes of school education through new communication technologies; self-assessment on a left-right continuum; possession of durable economic goods; span of control. In Ireland the following additional questions were posed: attitude to participation in the common European currency in case of a refusal of the British; assessment of participation of the EU in the peace process in Northern Ireland; attitude to Irish participation in a common European defense. In Spain the following additional questions were posed: extent to which informed about the Spanish presidency in the Council of Ministers and significance of this presidency. In Norway the following additional questions were posed: judgement on the EU/EFTA-Agreements; conduct in the referendum for the country to join the EU; areas in which progress or disadvantages would be expected through membership of Norway; expected membership of the country by the year 2005; expected effects for Sweden through membership in the EU. Also encoded was: date of interview; time of start of interview; length of interview; persons present during the interview; willingness of respondent to cooperate; possession of a telephone.
Categories Categories
  • International Institutions, Relations, Conditions
  • International politics and organisations
  • Government, political systems and organisations
  • Consumption and consumer behaviour
  • Economic systems and development
Old Topics Old Topics
  • 3 Education
  • 11.2 International politics and organisation
  • 11.6 Government, political systems and organisation
  • 17.3 Consumption/consumer behaviour
  • 17.6 Economic systems and development


Geographic Coverage
  • Belgium (BE)
  • Denmark (DK)
  • Germany (DE)
  • Greece (GR)
  • Spain (ES)
  • France (FR)
  • Ireland (IE)
  • Italy (IT)
  • Luxembourg (LU)
  • Netherlands (NL)
  • Portugal (PT)
  • Great Britain (GB-GBN)
  • Northern Ireland (GB-NIR)
  • Austria (AT)
  • Sweden (SE)
  • Finland (FI)
  • Norway (NO)
UniversePersons 15 years old and older.
Analysis Unit Analysis Unit
  • Individual
Sampling Procedure Sampling Procedure
  • Probability: Multistage
Multi-stage stratified random sample
Mode of Collection Mode of Collection
  • Face-to-face interview: Paper-and-pencil (PAPI)
Oral survey with standardized questionnaire
Time Method Time Method
  • Cross-section
Kind of Data Kind of Data
  • Numeric
Data CollectorMarketing Unit, Bruessel; GFK Danmark, Kopenhagen; SAMPLE INSTITUT, Moelln; KEME, Athen; CIMEI, Madrid; TMO Consultants, Paris; Lansdowne Market Research, Dublin; Ulster Marketing Surveys, Nordirland; PRAGMA, Rom; ILRES, Luxemburg; NIPO, Amsterdam; NORMA, Lissabon; NOP, London; TEMO AB, Solna, Schweden; Marketing Development Center, Espoo, Finnland; Nielsen Norge, Bergen; SPECTRA, Linz, OEsterreich; INRA EUROPE, Bruessel (Internationale Koordination)
Date of Collection
  • 13.11.1995 - 8.12.1995 (Belgium)
  • 18.11.1995 - 12.12.1995 (Denmark)
  • 12.11.1995 - 30.11.1995 (Germany)
  • 16.11.1995 - 4.12.1995 (Greece)
  • 17.11.1995 - 4.12.1995 (Spain)
  • 13.11.1995 - 4.12.1995 (France)
  • 15.11.1995 - 14.12.1995 (Ireland (Republic))
  • 16.11.1995 - 30.12.1995 (Italy)
  • 11.11.1995 - 14.12.1995 (Luxembourg)
  • 13.11.1995 - 14.12.1995 (Netherlands)
  • 20.11.1995 - 13.12.1995 (Portugal)
  • 11.11.1995 - 8.12.1995 (Great Britain)
  • 18.11.1995 - 5.12.1995 (Northern Ireland)
  • 13.11.1995 - 1.12.1995 (Austria)
  • 18.11.1995 - 19.12.1995 (Sweden)
  • 11.11.1995 - 11.12.1995 (Finland)
  • 15.11.1995 - 15.01.1996 (Norway)

Errata & Versions

VersionDate, Name, DOI
1.0.1 (current version)2012-7-1 Archive edition update
1.0.02010-4-13 Version number created automatically (implementation of a uniform versioning policy) (Publication Year unknown)
Errata in current version
Version changes
Changes between version 1.0.1 and it's previous version
DateSubjectDescriptionCorrection Description
2012-7-1ISOCNTRYalphanumeric country id variable2012-7-1variable added
2012-7-1VERSIONdataset version id variable2012-7-1variable added

Further Remarks

NotesIn Norway only one selection of questions was surveyed. The totals of the cases of the data set are distributed among the individual countries as follows: Belgium 1013 cases, Denmark 1000 cases, Germany (West sample) 1095 cases, Germany (East sample) 1019 cases, Greece 1008 cases, Spain 1000 cases, France 1000 cases, Ireland 1000 cases, Italy 1028 cases, Luxembourg 770 cases, Netherlands 1020 cases, Portugal 936 cases, Great Britain 1070 cases, Northern Ireland 311 cases, Austria 1036 cases, Sweden 990 cases, Finland 1050 cases, Norway 952 cases. The parallel survey in Norway is not part of the official Eurobarometer 44.1. Earlier Eurobarometers (2-40) are archived under ZA Study Nos. 0986-0995, 1036-1039, 1206-1209, 1318-1321, 1541-1544, 1712-1715, 1750-1753, 1960-1962, 2031-2033, 2081, 2141, 2241-2243, 2291-2295, 2346, 2347, 2459, 2490, 2491, 2563, 2636 as well as 2637. A cumulated data set of the Eurobarometer (1970-1992) is archived under ZA Study No. 2533. Questions on attitudes towards the "Single European Currency" (Q.3 and Q.9 to Q.21) are repeated from Eurobarometer 44.0 and should be analyzed in combination. Questions on "education and training throughout life" and "children’s education at school" (Q.92 TO Q.118) are repeated from Eurobarometer 44.0, but are only asked to respondents aged 15-24 years. Meaningful results are obtained for the total population on the 44.0 data; for the target group of young people and specific needs of this questionnaire topic, one should combine the 44.1 youth subsample with the corresponding 44.0 data. The parallel survey conducted in NORWAY is not part of the official Eurobarometer 44.1.
Number of Units: 17298
Number of Variables: 1057
Data Type: -
Analysis System(s): SPSS, Stata


  • Europäische Kommission (Hrsg.): Eurobarometer 44: Die öffentliche Meinung in der Europäischen Union. Brüssel: Selbstverlag Frühjahr 1996.
  • INRA (Europe) pour la Commission Européenne, Direction Générale VI.BI.4: Les labels de qualité. Bruxelles, mars 1996.
  • INRA (Europe) fot the European Commission, DG VIII: The Way Europeans perceive developing Countries in 1995. Brussels, 20th March 1996 (also available in French)
  • European Commission: Europeans and their Attitudes to Education and Training. 1997.
  • European Commission: European Citizens and the EURO, Brussels, 1996 (Results of two EU-wide opinion polls carried out 15 Oct-15 Dec and 16 Dec-20 Dec on behalf of the European Commission Survey Research Unit "Eurobarometer Opinion Polls". 22-24 January 1996. Round table on the Euro. Executive summary. Press release.) (also available in French and german)
Relevant full texts
from SSOAR (automatically assigned)


Research Data Centre
  •  EB - Standard and Special Eurobarometer
    Since the early nineteen seventies the European Commission´s “Standard and Special Eurobarometer” are regularly monitoring the public opinion in the European Union member countries at times. Interviews are conducted face-to-face, in each spring and each autumn, at all times based on new samples with a size 1000 respondents per country. Separate samples are drawn for Northern Ireland and East Germany. After the EU enlargement in 2004, remaining and new Candidate Countries are also regularly included in selected surveys. The Standard Eurobarometer modules ask for attitudes towards European unification, institutions and policies, complemented by measurements for general socio-political orientations, as well as by respondent and household demographics. Intermittently special Eurobarometer modules extensively address topics, such as environment, science and technology, health or family issues, social or ethnic exclusion, quality of life etc. The “European Communities Studies” 1970-1973 can be considered forerunner studies, as well the “Attitudes towards Europe” from 1962.