GESIS - DBK - ZA2898

ZA2898: Eurobarometer 46.0 (Oct-Nov 1996)

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  • ZA2898_missing_v1-0-1.sps (Dataset) 2 KBytes
  • ZA2898_v1-0-1.dta (Dataset Stata) 12 MBytes
  • ZA2898_v1-0-1.por (Dataset SPSS Portable) 23 MBytes
  • ZA2898_v1-0-1.sav (Dataset SPSS) 12 MBytes


  • ZA2898_bq_en.pdf (Questionnaire) 302 KBytes
  • ZA2898_bq_fr.pdf (Questionnaire) 297 KBytes
  • ZA2898_q_at.pdf (Questionnaire) 1 MByte
  • ZA2898_q_be-fr.pdf (Questionnaire) 1 MByte
  • ZA2898_q_be-nl.pdf (Questionnaire) 1 MByte
  • ZA2898_q_de-east.pdf (Questionnaire) 1 MByte
  • ZA2898_q_de-west.pdf (Questionnaire) 3 MBytes
  • ZA2898_q_dk.pdf (Questionnaire) 1 MByte
  • ZA2898_q_es.pdf (Questionnaire) 2 MBytes
  • ZA2898_q_fi-fi.pdf (Questionnaire) 108 KBytes
  • ZA2898_q_fi-se.pdf (Questionnaire) 1 MByte
  • ZA2898_q_fr.pdf (Questionnaire) 1 MByte
  • ZA2898_q_gb.pdf (Questionnaire) 1 MByte
  • ZA2898_q_gb_ni.pdf (Questionnaire) 2 MBytes
  • ZA2898_q_gr.pdf (Questionnaire) 2 MBytes
  • ZA2898_q_ie.pdf (Questionnaire) 2 MBytes
  • ZA2898_q_it.pdf (Questionnaire) 1 MByte
  • ZA2898_q_lu-fr.pdf (Questionnaire) 1 MByte
  • ZA2898_q_lu-lu.pdf (Questionnaire) 1001 KBytes
  • ZA2898_q_nl.pdf (Questionnaire) 4 MBytes
  • ZA2898_q_pt.pdf (Questionnaire) 1 MByte
  • ZA2898_q_se.pdf (Questionnaire) 1 MByte


  • ZA2898_cdb.pdf (Codebook) 4 MBytes
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Eurobarometer 46.0 (Oct-Nov 1996) Personal Health, Energy, Development Aid, and the Common European Currency,
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Bibliographic Citation

Citation Citation European Commission (2012): Eurobarometer 46.0 (Oct-Nov 1996). INRA, Brussels. GESIS Data Archive, Cologne. ZA2898 Data file Version 1.0.1,
Study No.ZA2898
TitleEurobarometer 46.0 (Oct-Nov 1996)
Other Titles
  • Personal Health, Energy, Development Aid, and the Common European Currrency (Subtitle)
Current Version1.0.1, 2012-7-1,
Alternate IDs Alternate IDs
  • doi:10.3886/ICPSR06939.v1, 2000-07
Date of Collection12.10.1996 - 11.11.1996
Principal Investigator/ Authoring Entity, Institution
  • European Commission, Brussels; DG X - Information Communication Culture Public Opinion Surveys and Research Unit


AbstractGeneral attitude to the EU. Sun-bathing and cancer. Currency. Energy and environmental protection. Third World and foreign aid. Rights of EU citizens. Topics: nationality (multiple response possible); interest in politics; personal opinion leadership; expectations of the coming year regarding one´s own situation in life, the economic situation of the country, the private financial situation, the situation in the job market in the country and one´s own occupational situation; media usage (TV, daily newspapers and radio). 1. Attitude to the EU: self-classification of extent to which informed about the policies and institutions of the EU; desire for more information about the EU; judgement on membership of the country in the EU; advantageousness of this membership; expected development towards European citizenship or self-image as citizen of one´s own country; speed of unification currently observed and desired by the respondent; desire for a common currency, common foreign policy and common security policies; attitude to a European Government responsible to the European Parliament and European responsibility for all things not taken care of nationally; significance of a trust situation between president, European Commission and parliament; attitude to a balance of power between European Parliament and council of ministers; attitude to passive and active municipal right to vote for EU foreigners; attitude to school instruction about the way European institutions work; attitude to support of European film and television production by the EU as counter-balance to American and Japanese productions; preference for national or European decision-making authority in selected political areas; trust in the peoples of the individual member countries of the EU as well as in the Poles, Hungarians, Czechs, Slovaks, Russians, Turks, Americans and Japanese; attitude to the Common European Market. 2. Sun-bathing and cancer: attitude to sun-bathing and judgement on the danger of the sun´s radiation for adults and children (scale); assessment of the dangers in sun-bathing and skin cancer resulting from this (scale); knowledge about possibilities of preventing skin cancer; personal conduct when sun-bathing (scale); suntan lotion and dark glasses as protective measures; frequency of use of solariums; self-assessment of personal skin type or skin color; stating eye color and natural hair color; knowledge about the advertising campaign against skin cancer and sun-bathing as well as the general advertising campaign ´Europe against cancer´. 3. Currency: attitude to replacement of the national currency by the EURO; reasons for or against this common currency; self-assessment of extent to which informed about the new currency; knowledge about conditions for participating in the European currency (test); expected time for introduction of the new currency; expected fulfillment of the criteria by one´s own country for the first time of introduction in 1999 as well as for a second point time in 2002; expected consequences of non-membership of one´s own country in this currency union; assessment of the EURO as only currency for all payments in the EU; assumption of a difference between ECU and EURO; selected economic expectations and changes through the common currency (scale); preference for introduction on one day or gradual introduction of the new money; preference for dual labeling of prices in stores, bills, bank account statements and salary statements; preferred duration for this dual labeling; most important concerns in the conversion phase; preferred institutions and organizations for a special education campaign on introduction of the new currency; evaluation of selected advertising slogans for the common currency; preferred distribution channel for information material on the common currency. 4. Attitude to energy questions, nuclear energy and environmental protection problems: the significance of equivalent technical standards, oil prices and efficient energy technology in all of Europe; importance of a supply of gas for every consumer and favorable energy costs for industry; improvement in provision of electric power in the EU; significance of adding environmental protection to European law; significance of securing energy sources; importance of reduction of energy consumption by private users; importance of improved information about possibilities of energy conservation; the significance of clean air for the cities (split: supplemental questions on reduction of environmental pollution through better traffic control systems, increased traffic control during times of heavy traffic, higher taxation of private vehicles and energy as well as through improvement in public local transport); assessment of the seriousness of environmental problems due to the greenhouse effect, acid rain and destruction of the ozone layer; assignment of possible causes to these environmental problems; areas of actual and future increased possible measures for energy conservation; classification of the efficiency of energy conservation of public facilities on local, regional, national, European and world-wide level; preference for market decision or public direction in energy investments; classification of energy sources such as coal, oil, gas, nuclear energy and renewable energies in their price stability, their security of supply and their slight risks for the environment for the next ten years; most important of the three criteria (split: instead of the answer category ´slight environmental risks´ ´reduction of environmental pollution´ was used); attitude to development of nuclear energy power plants (split: changes in answer categories presented); attitude to tax increase on energy consumption; preference for selected models of traffic planning with options for public local transport or private transport or pedestrians. 5. Attitude to aid and development in the Third World: importance of supporting underdeveloped countries in Africa, South America and Asia; most important reasons for not helping the Third World; assessment of the percentage of the national budget and the European budget for foreign aid; preference for an increase or reduction of national as well as European contribution to foreign aid; expected percentage of return of these funds to countries in the EU; desire for increased information about foreign aid through the EU; assumption about good business of companies from investing in underdeveloped countries; Europe, USA or Japan as most able partner for foreign aid in Africa, South America and Asia; assignment of the most able partners to the regions; reasons for rejection of the ability for foreign aid of the EU in Africa; Japan, USA or developing countries as greatest export partners of the EU; foreign aid of the EU as contribution to solution of drug problems, overpopulation, immigration problems, environmental pollution, unemployment problems in one´s country, AIDS and the development of trade relations; assessment of the substance of news reports on television as well as in daily newspapers regarding selected topics from the developing countries. 6. Rights as citizen of the EU: knowledge about the rights and possibilities as EU citizen in another member country (test); self-assessment of extent to which informed about selected questions of rights and chances as EU citizen; knowledge and extent of interest in further information; preferred distribution channels for information material about the rights as EU citizen; self-classification on a left-right continuum; possession of durable economic goods such as radio, electronics, computer, camera, second car and second home; self-classification of economic situation of household; urban or rural residential area. In Ireland the following questions were posed: knowledge about the Irish presidency in the council of ministers and significance of this presidency for one´s own country. In Eastern and Western Germany as well as in Spain, France, Italy and in the United Kingdom the following additional questions were posed: classification of one´s own knowledge about every individual member country of the EU and classification of one´s own closeness as well as distance from these countries; judgement of these countries regarding their political reliability, economic efficiency, approval of Europe and business reliability; attitude to strict application of the Maastricht criteria; importance of observance of the introduction date for the common currency in and assessment of the probability that this date will be met; self-assessment of perception of political events in Italy in the last year; judgement on the political as well as the economic situation in Italy on scales. In Spain the following additional questions were posed: preference for regional or national election lists in the election to the European Parliament. Also encoded was: date of interview; time of start of interview; length of interview; number of persons present during interview; willingness of respondent to cooperate; possession of telephone in household.
Categories Categories
  • International Institutions, Relations, Conditions
  • Cultural and national identity
  • General health and well-being
  • International politics and organisations
  • Government, political systems and organisations
  • Energy and natural resources
  • Economic systems and development
Old Topics Old Topics
  • 5.4 Cultural and national identity
  • 7.3 General health
  • 11.2 International politics and organisation
  • 11.6 Government, political systems and organisation
  • 16.2 Natural resources and energy
  • 17.6 Economic systems and development


Geographic Coverage
  • Belgium (BE)
  • Denmark (DK)
  • Germany (DE)
  • Greece (GR)
  • Spain (ES)
  • France (FR)
  • Ireland (IE)
  • Italy (IT)
  • Luxembourg (LU)
  • Netherlands (NL)
  • Portugal (PT)
  • Great Britain (GB-GBN)
  • Northern Ireland (GB-NIR)
  • Austria (AT)
  • Sweden (SE)
  • Finland (FI)
UniversePersons 15 years old and older
Sampling Procedure Sampling Procedure
Representative sample
Mode of Collection Mode of Collection
Oral survey with standardized questionnaire
Data CollectorMarketing Unit, Bruessel; GFK Danmark, Kopenhagen; INRA DEUTSCHLAND, Moelln; KEME, Athen; CIMEI, Madrid; TMO, Paris; Lansdowne Market Research, Dublin; Ulster Marketing Surveys, Nordirland; PRAGMA, Rom; ILRES, Luxemburg; NIPO, Amsterdam; METRIS, Lissabon; NOP Corporate and Financial, London; TEMO, Solna, Schweden; Marketing Development Center, Espoo, Finnland; SPECTRA, Linz, OEsterreich; INRA EUROPE (Internationale Koordination), Bruessel
Date of Collection
  • 22.10.1996 - 3.11.1996 (Belgium)
  • 23.10.1996 - 8.11.1996 (Denmark)
  • 18.10.1996 - 5.11.1996 (Germany)
  • 23.10.1996 - 3.11.1996 (Greece)
  • 21.10.1996 - 3.11.1996 (Spain)
  • 19.10.1996 - 3.11.1996 (France)
  • 20.10.1996 - 11.11.1996 (Ireland (Republic))
  • 21.10.1996 - 3.11.1996 (Italy)
  • 12.10.1996 - 8.11.1996 (Luxembourg)
  • 18.10.1996 - 11.11.1996 (Netherlands)
  • 14.10.1996 - 10.11.1996 (Portugal)
  • 17.10.1996 - 5.11.1996 (Great Britain)
  • 22.10.1996 - 8.11.1996 (Northern Ireland)
  • 21.10.1996 - 3.11.1996 (Austria)
  • 21.10.1996 - 10.11.1996 (Sweden)
  • 20.10.1996 - 10.11.1996 (Finland)

Errata & Versions

VersionDate, Name, DOI
1.0.1 (current version)2012-7-1 Archive edition update
1.0.02010-4-13 Version number created automatically (implementation of a uniform versioning policy) (Publication Year unknown)
Errata in current version
Version changes
Changes between version 1.0.1 and it's previous version
DateSubjectDescriptionCorrection Description
2012-7-1ISOCNTRYalphanumeric country id variable2012-7-1variable added
2012-7-1VERSIONdataset version id variable2012-7-1variable added

Further Remarks

NotesIn each country about 1000 interviews were conducted, except in Luxembourg (approx. 600 respondents) and in Northern Ireland (approx. 300 respondents). In Germany two separate samples of approx. 1000 respondents each were surveyed in East and West A cumulated data set of the Eurobarometer Trend Questions from 1970 to 2002 is archived under ZA Study No. 3521. Questions on attitudes towards the Single European Currency (Q.24 to Q.43) are repeated in Eurobarometer 46.1 (Q.23 to Q.42) and should be analyzed in combination.
Number of Units: 16248
Number of Variables: 666
Data Type: -
Analysis System(s): SPSS, Stata


  • Europäische Kommission (Hrsg.): Eurobarometer 46: Die öffentliche Meinung in der Europäischen Union. Brüssel: Selbstverlag Herbst 1996.
  • INRA (Europe) for the European Commission, Directorate General XVII: European Opinion and Energy Matters 1997. Brussels, February 1997.
  • INRA (Europe) for the European Commission, Directorate General Development (DGVIII): Development Aid: Building for the Future with Public Support - Summary. Brussels, January 1997 (also available in French).
  • INRA (Europe) pour la Commission Européenne, Direction Générale V/F/2: Les Européens et le soleil. Bruxelles, Fevrier 1997.
Relevant full texts
from SSOAR (automatically assigned)


Research Data Centre
  •  EB - Standard and Special Eurobarometer
    Since the early nineteen seventies the European Commission´s “Standard and Special Eurobarometer” are regularly monitoring the public opinion in the European Union member countries at times. Interviews are conducted face-to-face, in each spring and each autumn, at all times based on new samples with a size 1000 respondents per country. Separate samples are drawn for Northern Ireland and East Germany. After the EU enlargement in 2004, remaining and new Candidate Countries are also regularly included in selected surveys. The Standard Eurobarometer modules ask for attitudes towards European unification, institutions and policies, complemented by measurements for general socio-political orientations, as well as by respondent and household demographics. Intermittently special Eurobarometer modules extensively address topics, such as environment, science and technology, health or family issues, social or ethnic exclusion, quality of life etc. The “European Communities Studies” 1970-1973 can be considered forerunner studies, as well the “Attitudes towards Europe” from 1962.