GESIS - DBK - ZA3077

ZA3077: European Candidates Study 1994

Downloads and Data Access

On this page you find the complete metadata and an overview of all available data sets and documents for the requested study. The download of all files is possible from our central search page under the following link:
ZA3077 Downloads and Data Access

List of Files

List of Files


  • ZA3077-79_data_access.pdf (User Contract) 77 KBytes
  • ZA3077-79_Datenzugang.pdf (User Contract) 78 KBytes


  • ZA3077_fb.pdf (Questionnaire) 778 KBytes
  • ZA3077_q.pdf (Questionnaire) 722 KBytes


  • ZA3077_cod.pdf (Codebook) 415 KBytes
Availability Availability C - Data and documents are only released for academic research and teaching after the data depositor’s written authorization. For this purpose the Data Archive obtains a written permission with specification of the user and the analysis intention.
Download of Data and Documents Download of Data and Documents All downloads from this catalogue are free of charge. Data-sets available under access categories B and C must be ordered via the shopping cart with a few exceptions. Charges apply! Please respect our Terms of use.

Bibliographic Citation

Citation Citation de Winter, Lieven; Bryder, Tom; Linch, Philip; Norris, Pippa; Chavel, Cecile; Weßels, Bernhard; Kielhorn, R.; Marsh, Michael; Sola, Giorgio; Gardella, Louisa; Thomassen, Jacques; Geurts, Peter; van der Kolk, Henk; Stock, Maria J.; López-Nieto, Lourdes; Delgado, Irene; Holmberg, Sören; Esaiasson, Peter; Brothen, Martin (1999): European Candidates Study 1994. GESIS Data Archive, Cologne. ZA3077 Data file Version 1.0.0,
Study No.ZA3077
TitleEuropean Candidates Study 1994
Current Version1.0.0, 2010-4-13, (Publication Year 1999)
Date of Collection05.1994 - 06.1995
Principal Investigator/ Authoring Entity, Institution
  • de Winter, Lieven - Université Catholique de Louvain, Belgien
  • Bryder, Tom - Kobenhavn Universitet, Dänemark
  • Linch, Philip - University of Edinburgh, Großbritannien
  • Norris, Pippa - University of Edinburgh, Großbritannien
  • Chavel, Cecile - Centre d´études de la vie politique francaise, Frankreich
  • Weßels, Bernhard - Wissenschaftszentrum Berlin
  • Kielhorn, R. - Wissenschaftszentrum Berlin
  • Marsh, Michael - Trinity College, Irland
  • Sola, Giorgio - Universita degli Studi di Genova, Italien
  • Gardella, Louisa - Universita degli Studi di Genova, Italien
  • Thomassen, Jacques - Universiteit Twente, Niederlande
  • Geurts, Peter - Universiteit Twente, Niederlande
  • van der Kolk, Henk - Universiteit Twente, Niederlande
  • Stock, Maria J. - Centro Cultura de Belém, Portugal
  • López-Nieto, Lourdes - Universidad Nacional de Educatión a Distancia, Spanien
  • Delgado, Irene - Universidad Nacional de Educatión a Distancia, Spanien
  • Holmberg, Sören - Schweden
  • Esaiasson, Peter - Schweden
  • Brothen, Martin - Schweden


AbstractPolitical views, motivation, political career, social and political networks. Attitude of candidates applying for European Parliament. Topics: Motivation behind candidateship; political and administrative career before candidateship; political office of parents or other family members; duration of own party membership; weekly time budget for party activities in average as well as for campaigning; division of time spent for campaigning, public events, party sessions, publicity campaigns and contacting mass media; assessment of nomination procedures regarding candidateship for European parliament; supporting groups and one’s own organisations for European Parliament candidateship and general estimation of the influence selected groups and organisations have on candidate election; preference for the division of political resorts into national or European responsibility; attitude regarding efforts to unify Western Europe; priority of economic or political aspects in the EU; attitudes concerning common European currency; assumed attitude of the national government, members of parliament, of one’s own party, of the voters of one’s own party as well as information concerning one’s own position within the employment creation programme created by the President of the European Commission as well as further removal of national border control within the European Union; self-classification on a left-right continuum; classification of voters, as well as members of parliament of one’s own party on a left-right-continuum; postmaterialism (Inglehart-Index) attitude towards European unification and judgement of the political and social consequences of the European unification (scale); most important political issue; preferable political level to solve the most significant issues; most important tasks as a member of the European Parliament; decisional preference in the event of a conflict in matters before the European Parliament between personal judgement, the policy of the national party or of the policy of one’s own fraction in European Parliament; aspired political career; self-assessment of the probability of being elected as a member of European Parliament; frequency of contact with selected groups, like lobbyists, parties, National Ministers, national citizens and bureaucrats and perceived influence of the lobbyists on the Members of the European Parliament; amount of correspondence received each week from citizens and others; sense of responsibility concerning voters, citizens or one’s party; preferred degree of decision-making power of selected groups in the fields of legislation, deciding the household budget, political control of commission activities and choosing members of the commission; perceived conflicts between party fractions, parties as well as voters concerning national and European interests; satisfaction with how democracy works within the European Union and in one’s own country; confidence in European decisions made in the interest of one’s own country; preferred decision-making by the Council of Ministers; attitude towards the passing of laws which are valid for all EU member countries; emotional closeness to different geographical units: town of residence, place of birth, country, Europe or the world. Demography: age (classified); sex; marital status; sector of employment of questioned person; employment in public sector; education; denomination; church attendance. Additionally coded: dispatch date; reply date; follow-up telephone call; electoral district; party) list position; electoral success, European political group membership; number of elected candidates as well as those on record.
Categories Categories
  • International Institutions, Relations, Conditions
  • Political behaviour and attitudes
  • Government, political systems and organisations
  • Elections
Old Topics Old Topics
  • 11.5 Mass political behaviour, attitudes/opinion
  • 11.6 Government, political systems and organisation
  • 11.7 Elections


Geographic Coverage
  • Belgium (BE)
  • Denmark (DK)
  • Germany (DE)
  • France (FR)
  • Great Britain (GB-GBN)
  • Ireland (IE)
  • Italy (IT)
  • Luxembourg (LU)
  • Netherlands (NL)
  • Portugal (PT)
  • Spain (ES)
  • Sweden (SE)
UniverseStudy among candidates running for the European Parliament 1994.
Sampling Procedure Sampling Procedure
The number of candidates varies from country to country. Since not all candidates were known at the beginning of the study not all addresses were available. While some national investigators decided in favour of a sample of the candidates, others strove for a census of the candidates. A great variation of the return rates emerged from country to country. The European Candidates Study 1994 (ECS94) is part of a greater project called ´Political Representation in Europe´. Other parts of this project are the European Election Study 1994 (EES94, ZA Studies No. 2865), the survey of the members of the European Parliament 1996 (MEP96, ZA Study No. 3078) and the survey of the members of the European Parliament 1996 (MNP96, ZA Study No. 3079). The survey was carried out from May to June 1994, in Sweden from May to June 1995.
Mode of Collection Mode of Collection
Mail survey
Data CollectorJ. Thomassen, Universiteit Twente, The Netherlands
Date of Collection
  • 05.1994 - 06.1995 (The survey times: from May to June 1994; Sweden from May to June 1995.)

Errata & Versions

VersionDate, Name, DOI
1.0.0 (current version)2010-4-13 Version number created automatically (implementation of a uniform versioning policy) (Publication Year unknown)
Errata in current version
Version changes

Further Remarks

Number of Units: 1770
Number of Variables: 307
Data Type: -
Analysis System(s): SPSS, Stata


  • Marsh, Michael; Norris, Pippa: Political Representation in the European Parliament. Special Issue of the European Journal of Political Research, Vol. 32, No. 2, 1997.
  • Franklin, Mark N.; Scarrow, Susan E.: Making Europeans? The Socializing Power of the European Parliament. In: Katz, Richard S; Wessels, Bernhard (Hrsg.), The European Parliament, National Parliaments, and European Integration. Oxford: Oxford University Press 1999, S. 45-60.
  • Norris, Pippa: Legislative Recruitment. In: LeDuc, Lawrence; Niemie, Richard G.; Norris, Pippa (Hrsg.), Comparing Democracies. Thousand Oaks/London: Sage 1996, S. 184-215.
  • Norris, Pippa: Conclusions: Comparing Passages to Power. In: Norris, Pippa (Hrsg.), Passages to Power. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press 1997, S. 209-231.
  • Norris, Pippa: Recruitment into the European Parliament. In: Katz, Richard S.; Wessels, Bernhard (Hrsg.), The European Parliament, National Parliaments, and European Integration. Oxford: Oxford University Press 1999, S. 86-102.
Relevant full texts
from SSOAR (automatically assigned)


Research Data Centre
  • European Election Studies
    Beside these international studies there is also group European Election (Germany), in which the surveys are listed that were only done in Germany for the European Parliament elections.