GESIS - DBK - ZA6585

ZA6585: Flash Eurobarometer 421 (Internationalisation of Small and Medium-Sized Enterprises)

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  • ZA6585_v1-0-0.dta (Dataset Stata) 7 MBytes
  • ZA6585_v1-0-0.por (Dataset SPSS Portable) 9 MBytes
  • ZA6585_v1-0-0.sav (Dataset SPSS) 7 MBytes


  • ZA6585_bq.pdf (Questionnaire) 284 KBytes
  • ZA6585_q_al.pdf (Questionnaire) 250 KBytes
  • ZA6585_q_at.pdf (Questionnaire) 254 KBytes
  • ZA6585_q_be-fr.pdf (Questionnaire) 256 KBytes
  • ZA6585_q_be-nl.pdf (Questionnaire) 247 KBytes
  • ZA6585_q_bg.pdf (Questionnaire) 260 KBytes
  • ZA6585_q_cy.pdf (Questionnaire) 259 KBytes
  • ZA6585_q_cz.pdf (Questionnaire) 257 KBytes
  • ZA6585_q_de.pdf (Questionnaire) 255 KBytes
  • ZA6585_q_dk.pdf (Questionnaire) 250 KBytes
  • ZA6585_q_ee-ee.pdf (Questionnaire) 247 KBytes
  • ZA6585_q_ee-ru.pdf (Questionnaire) 261 KBytes
  • ZA6585_q_es.pdf (Questionnaire) 249 KBytes
  • ZA6585_q_fi-fi.pdf (Questionnaire) 249 KBytes
  • ZA6585_q_fi-se.pdf (Questionnaire) 248 KBytes
  • ZA6585_q_fr.pdf (Questionnaire) 255 KBytes
  • ZA6585_q_gb.pdf (Questionnaire) 249 KBytes
  • ZA6585_q_gr.pdf (Questionnaire) 259 KBytes
  • ZA6585_q_hr.pdf (Questionnaire) 258 KBytes
  • ZA6585_q_hu.pdf (Questionnaire) 254 KBytes
  • ZA6585_q_ie-en.pdf (Questionnaire) 246 KBytes
  • ZA6585_q_ie-ga.pdf (Questionnaire) 242 KBytes
  • ZA6585_q_is.pdf (Questionnaire) 252 KBytes
  • ZA6585_q_it.pdf (Questionnaire) 247 KBytes
  • ZA6585_q_lt.pdf (Questionnaire) 256 KBytes
  • ZA6585_q_lu-de.pdf (Questionnaire) 255 KBytes
  • ZA6585_q_lu-fr.pdf (Questionnaire) 256 KBytes
  • ZA6585_q_lu-lu.pdf (Questionnaire) 250 KBytes
  • ZA6585_q_lv-lv.pdf (Questionnaire) 250 KBytes
  • ZA6585_q_lv-ru.pdf (Questionnaire) 258 KBytes
  • ZA6585_q_md-ro.pdf (Questionnaire) 253 KBytes
  • ZA6585_q_md-uk.pdf (Questionnaire) 261 KBytes
  • ZA6585_q_me.pdf (Questionnaire) 254 KBytes
  • ZA6585_q_mk-mk.pdf (Questionnaire) 257 KBytes
  • ZA6585_q_mk-sq.pdf (Questionnaire) 251 KBytes
  • ZA6585_q_mt-en.pdf (Questionnaire) 248 KBytes
  • ZA6585_q_mt-mt.pdf (Questionnaire) 269 KBytes
  • ZA6585_q_nl.pdf (Questionnaire) 250 KBytes
  • ZA6585_q_pl.pdf (Questionnaire) 259 KBytes
  • ZA6585_q_pt.pdf (Questionnaire) 250 KBytes
  • ZA6585_q_ro.pdf (Questionnaire) 256 KBytes
  • ZA6585_q_se.pdf (Questionnaire) 246 KBytes
  • ZA6585_q_si.pdf (Questionnaire) 249 KBytes
  • ZA6585_q_sk.pdf (Questionnaire) 255 KBytes
  • ZA6585_q_tr.pdf (Questionnaire) 257 KBytes

Other Documents

  • ZA6585_readme.pdf (Other Document) 21 KBytes
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Bibliographic Citation

Citation Citation European Commission, Brussels (2015): Flash Eurobarometer 421 (Internationalisation of Small and Medium-Sized Enterprises). TNS Political & Social [producer]. GESIS Data Archive, Cologne. ZA6585 Data file Version 1.0.0,
Study No.ZA6585
TitleFlash Eurobarometer 421 (Internationalisation of Small and Medium-Sized Enterprises)
Current Version1.0.0, 2015-11-10,
Date of Collection10.06.2015 - 30.06.2015
Principal Investigator/ Authoring Entity, Institution
  • European Commission, Brussels DG Communication COMM A1 ´Strategy, Corporate Communication Actions and Eurobarometer´ Unit


AbstractAttitude of small and medium-sized enterprises towards import and export activities. Topics: awareness of the Enterprise Europe Network; activities of the company in the last three years inside or outside the EU: exports to other countries, imports from other countries, cooperation with partners based abroad for research and development purposes, work as a subcontractor for a company based abroad, use of a subcontractor based abroad, investment in a company based abroad; export activities or considerations; companies already exporting products or services were asked: significance of each of the following difficulties: high delivery costs, ignorance of the applicable rules, insufficient security of payments from other countries, complicated or costly foreign taxation, lack of language skills, specificity of products, costs from resolving complaints and disputes cross-border, lack of specialized staff, identifying business partners abroad, large financial investment, ignorance where to find information about the potential market; companies not yet exporting products or services were asked the aforementioned issues plus: complicated administrative procedures; countries to which company exported in 2014; percentage of the company´s sales in 2014 coming from: own country, EU countries, countries outside the EU; import activities or considerations; significance of each of the following difficulties with regard to importing products or services: high delivery costs, ignorance of the applicable rules, lack of language skills, lack of specialized staff, identifying business partners abroad, complicated administrative procedures, ignorance where to find information about potential suppliers, controlling order quality; countries from which company imported in 2014; availability of the following services: website presenting products or services, online ordering, online payment; most helpful measures to engage in business abroad. Demography: information about the company: number of employees, year of establishment, independent or part of national or international group, kind of sold products or services and target group; number of employees in January 2008; number of employees by end of the company’s first year of operation; change in number of employees since 2008; change in number of employees since the company’s first year of operation; overall change in number of employees; development of turnover since January 2008 (in percent); development of turnover since end of the company’s first year of operation (in percent); total turnover in 2014. Additionally coded was: respondent ID; country; NACE-Code; nation group; weighting factor.
Categories Categories
  • International Institutions, Relations, Conditions
  • Branches of Economy, Services and Transport
Topics Topics
  • 8 Trade, industry and markets


Geographic Coverage
  • Belgium (BE)
  • Bulgaria (BG)
  • Czech Republic (CZ)
  • Denmark (DK)
  • Germany (DE)
  • Estonia (EE)
  • Ireland (IE)
  • Greece (GR)
  • Spain (ES)
  • France (FR)
  • Italy (IT)
  • Cyprus (CY)
  • Latvia (LV)
  • Lithuania (LT)
  • Luxembourg (LU)
  • Hungary (HU)
  • Malta (MT)
  • Netherlands (NL)
  • Austria (AT)
  • Poland (PL)
  • Portugal (PT)
  • Romania (RO)
  • Slovenia (SI)
  • Slovakia (SK)
  • Finland (FI)
  • Sweden (SE)
  • Croatia (HR)
  • United Kingdom (GB)
  • Albania (AL)
  • Iceland (IS)
  • North Macedonia (MK)
  • Montenegro (ME)
  • Turkey (TR)
  • Moldova, Republic of (MD)
UniverseBusinesses employing 1 to 249 persons in the sectors of manufacturing, services (wholesale and retail trade, repair of motor vehicles and motorcycles, transportation and storage, accommodation and food service activities, information and communication, financial and insurance activities, real estate activities, professional, scientific and technical activities, administrative and support service activities, arts, entertainment and recreation) and industry (electricity, gas, steam and air conditioning supply, water supply, sewerage, waste management and remediation activities, construction). Whenever a company was eligible the selected respondent had to be a general manager, a financial director or a significant owner.
Sampling Procedure Sampling Procedure
  • Probability: Stratified
Mode of Collection Mode of Collection
  • Telephone interview: Computer-assisted (CATI)
Data CollectorTNS Dimarso, Brussels, Belgium; TNS BBSS, Sofia, Bulgaria; TNS Aisa s.r.o., Prague, Czech Republic; TNS GALLUP A/S, Copenhagen, Denmark; TNS Infratest Deutschland, Munich, Germany; TNS Emor, Tallinn, Estonia; IMS Millward Brown, Dublin, Ireland; TNS ICAP, Athens, Greece; TNS Demoscopia S.A., Madrid, Spain; TNS Sofres, Montrouge, France; TNS Italia srl, Milan, Italy; CYMAR, Nicosia, Cyprus; TNS Latvia, Riga, Latvia; TNS LT, Vilnius, Lithuania; TNS Dimarso, Luxembourg, Luxembourg; TNS Hoffmann Kft, Budapest, Hungary; MISCO International Ltd, Valletta, Malta; TNS NIPO, Amsterdam, Netherlands; TNS Austria, Vienna, Austria; TNS OBOP, Warsaw, Poland; TNS EUROTESTE, Lisbon, Portugal; TNS CSOP, Bucharest, Romania; RM PLUS, Maribor, Slovenia; TNS AISA Slovakia, Bratislava, Slovakia; TNS GALLUP Oy, Espoo, Finland; TNS SIFO, Stockholm, Sweden; TNS UK, London, United Kingdom; HENDAL, Zagreb, Croatia; IDRA, Tirana, Albania; Capacent ehf, Reykjavik, Iceland; TNS Brima, Skopje, Macedonia; TNS Medium Gallup, Belgrade, Montenegro; TNS PIAR, Istanbul, Turkey; Institutul de Marketing si Sondaje IMAS-INC, Chişinău, Moldova; TNS Political & Social, Brussels (international co-ordination)
Date of Collection
  • 10.06.2015 - 30.06.2015 (total)
  • 10.06.2015 - 30.06.2015 (Belgium)
  • 10.06.2015 - 25.06.2015 (Bulgaria)
  • 10.06.2015 - 25.06.2015 (Czech Republic)
  • 10.06.2015 - 30.06.2015 (Denmark)
  • 10.06.2015 - 30.06.2015 (Germany)
  • 10.06.2015 - 18.06.2015 (Estonia)
  • 10.06.2015 - 30.06.2015 (Ireland)
  • 10.06.2015 - 29.06.2015 (Greece)
  • 10.06.2015 - 30.06.2015 (Spain)
  • 10.06.2015 - 30.06.2015 (France)
  • 10.06.2015 - 30.06.2015 (Croatia)
  • 10.06.2015 - 29.06.2015 (Italy)
  • 10.06.2015 - 25.06.2015 (Republic of Cyprus)
  • 10.06.2015 - 30.06.2015 (Latvia)
  • 10.06.2015 - 29.06.2015 (Lithuania)
  • 10.06.2015 - 26.06.2015 (Luxembourg)
  • 10.06.2015 - 29.06.2015 (Hungary)
  • 10.06.2015 - 30.06.2015 (Malta)
  • 10.06.2015 - 30.06.2015 (Netherlands)
  • 10.06.2015 - 30.06.2015 (Austria)
  • 10.06.2015 - 30.06.2015 (Poland)
  • 10.06.2015 - 30.06.2015 (Portugal)
  • 10.06.2015 - 30.06.2015 (Romania)
  • 10.06.2015 - 23.06.2015 (Slovenia)
  • 10.06.2015 - 30.06.2015 (Finland)
  • 10.06.2015 - 30.06.2015 (Sweden)
  • 10.06.2015 - 22.06.2015 (United Kingdom)
  • 10.06.2015 - 30.06.2015 (Albania)
  • 10.06.2015 - 24.06.2015 (Iceland)
  • 10.06.2015 - 25.06.2015 (Former Yugoslav Republic of Macedonia)
  • 10.06.2015 - 29.06.2015 (Montenegro)
  • 10.06.2015 - 30.06.2015 (Turkey)
  • 10.06.2015 - 30.06.2015 (Moldova)

Errata & Versions

VersionDate, Name, DOI
1.0.0 (current version)2015-11-10 Archive release
Errata in current version
Version changes

Further Remarks

Number of Units: 14513
Number of Variables: 220
Analysis System(s): SPSS, Stata


  • European Commission: Flash Eurobarometer 421. Internationalisation of Small and Medium-sized Enterprises. Conducted by TNS Political & Social at the request of the European Commission, Directorate-General for Internal Market, Industry, Entrepreneurship and SMEs (DG GROW). Survey co-ordinated by the European Commission, Directorate-General for Communication (DG COMM “Strategy, Corporate Communication Actions and Eurobarometer” Unit). Brussels, October 2015. DOI: 10.2873/98032.
Relevant full texts
from SSOAR (automatically assigned)


Research Data Centre
  •  EB - Flash Eurobarometer
    The Flash Eurobarometer were launched by the European Commission in the late eighties, turning out a Monthly Monitor between in 1994 and 1995. These “small scale” surveys are conducted in all EU member states at times, occasionally reducing or enlarging the scope of countries as a function of specific topics. The typical sample size is 500-1000 respondents per country and interviews are usually conducted by phone in the respective national language. The Flash Eurobarometer include series on special topics (Common Currency, EU Enlargement, Information Society, Entrepreneurship, Innovation) as well as special target group polls, particularly company managers with enterprise related topics.
  • Flash Eurobarometer - Manager samples and enterprise issues