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ZA7600: International Social Survey Programme: Social Inequality V - ISSP 2019

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Bibliographic Citation

Citation Citation ISSP Research Group (2021): International Social Survey Programme: Social Inequality V - ISSP 2019. GESIS Data Archive, Cologne. ZA7600 Data file Version 1.0.0,
Study No.ZA7600
TitleInternational Social Survey Programme: Social Inequality V - ISSP 2019
Current Version1.0.0, 2021-3-26,
Date of Collection20.11.2018 - 03.10.2020
Principal Investigator/ Authoring Entity, Institution
  • Steinmetz, Stephanie - FORS, c/o University of Lausanne, Switzerland
  • Sapin, Marlène - FORS, c/o University of Lausanne, Switzerland
  • Joye, Dominique - FORS, c/o University of Lausanne, Switzerland
  • Gonzales T., Ricardo - Centro de Estudios Públicos (CEP), Santiago, Chile
  • Hamplová, Dana - Institute of Sociology of the Czech Academy of Sciences, Prague, Czech Republic
  • Krejčí, Jindřich - Institute of Sociology of the Czech Academy of Sciences, Prague, Czech Republic
  • Wolf, Christof - GESIS Leibniz Institute for the Social Sciences, Mannheim, Germany
  • Scholz, Evi - GESIS Leibniz Institute for the Social Sciences, Mannheim, Germany
  • Jutz, Regina - GESIS Leibniz Institute for the Social Sciences, Mannheim, Germany
  • Hochman, Oshrat - GESIS Leibniz Institute for the Social Sciences, Mannheim, Germany
  • Clement, Sanne L. - Department of Economics, Politics and Public Administration, Aalborg University, Aalborg, Denmark
  • Melin, Harri - University of Tampere/ Finnish Social Science Data Archive, Finland
  • Borg, Sami - University of Tampere/ Finnish Social Science Data Archive, Finland
  • Marinović Jerolimov, Dinka - Institute for Social Research, Zagreb, Croatia
  • Pedrazzani, Andrea - Department of Social and Political Sciences, University of Milan, Italy
  • Vegetti, Federico - Department of Social and Political Sciences, University of Milan, Italy
  • Kobayashi, Toshiyuki - NHK (Japan Broadcasting Corporation), Tokyo, Japan
  • Murata, Hiroko - NHK (Japan Broadcasting Corporation), Tokyo, Japa
  • Milne, Barry - The University of Auckland, New Zealand
  • Randow, Martin von - The University of Auckland, New Zealand
  • Guerrero, Linda Luz - Social Weather Stations, Quezon City, Philippines
  • Labucay, Iremae - Social Weather Stations, Quezon City, Philippines
  • Karaeva, Olga - Levada Center, Moscow, Russia
  • Hafner Fink, Mitja - University of Ljubljana, Faculty of Social Science, Ljubljana, Slovenia Centre, University of Ljubljana, Slovenia
  • Malnar, Brina - University of Ljubljana, Faculty of Social Science, Ljubljana, Slovenia
  • Bureekul, Thawilwadee - King Prajadhipok’s Institute, Bangkok, Thailand
  • Sangmahamad, Ratchawadee - King Prajadhipok’s Institute, Bangkok, Thailand
  • Udompong, Lertporn - King Prajadhipok’s Institute, Bangkok, Thailand
  • Struwig, Jare - Human Sciences Research Council (HSRC), Pretoria, South Africa
  • Roberts, Benjamin - Human Sciences Research Council (HSRC), Pretoria, South Africa
  • Ngungu, Mercy - Human Sciences Research Council (HSRC), Pretoria, South Africa
  • Gordon, Steven - Human Sciences Research Council (HSRC), Pretoria, South Africa


AbstractThe International Social Survey Programme (ISSP) is a continuous programme of cross-national collaboration running annual surveys on topics important for the social sciences. The programme started in 1984 with four founding members - Australia, Germany, Great Britain, and the United States – and has now grown to almost 50 member countries from all over the world. As the surveys are designed for replication, they can be used for both, cross-national and cross-time comparisons. Each ISSP module focuses on a specific topic, which is repeated in regular time intervals. Please, consult the documentation for details on how the national ISSP surveys are fielded. The present study focuses on questions about Social Inequality: social inequality. Topics: Importance of different opportunities for getting ahead (wealthy family, well-educated parents, good education, hard work, knowing the right people, political connections, giving bribes, person´s race and religion, gender); estimation of actual and reasonable earnings for occupational groups: doctor in general practice, chairman of a large national corporation, shop assistant, unskilled worker in a factory, cabinet minister in the national government; concerns about inequality: income differences are too large in respondent´s country; feeling angry about differences in wealth between the rich and the poor (10 point scale); rating the fairness of income distribution in the country. Social policy and redistribution: responsibility of the government to reduce income differences, the government should provide a decent standard of living for the unemployed; Reducing inequality by market actors: responsibility of private companies to reduce the differences in pay between their employees; market actor with the greatest responsibility for reducing differences in income (private companies, government, trade-unions, high-income individuals themselves, low-income individuals themselves, income differences do not need to be reduced); government inefficacy: most politicians in the country do not care about reducing the differences in income between people with high incomes and people with low incomes; rating of the government´s success in reducing the differences in income; opinion on taxation (people with high incomes should pay a larger share of their income in taxes than those with low incomes, the same share, or a smaller share); general rating of taxes in the country as much too high, too high, about right, too low, or much too low; market inequality in social services (just or unjust that people with higher incomes can buy better health care/ better education for their children than people with lower incomes); Perceptions of global inequality (present economic differences between rich and poor countries are too large, people in wealthy countries should make an additional tax contribution to help people in poor countries, people from poor countries should be allowed to work in wealthy countries). Social conflict: rating of social conflicts between different social groups (poor people and rich people, the working class and die middle class, management and workers, young people and older people, people born in the country and people from other countries who have come to live in the country). Subjective social class / class mobility: Top-Bottom self-placement; Top-Bottom placement of the family the respondent grew up in; Top-Bottom self-placement in 10 years; subjective social class. Pay criteria: importance of different pay criteria (how much responsibility goes with the job, the number of years spent in education and training, whether the person has children to support, how well he or she does the job). Characterisation of the actual and the preferred type of society of the country, measured by classification on pyramid diagrams (image of society). Lived experience of inequality: frequency of contact with people who are a lot poorer than the respondent; frequency of contact with people who are a lot richer than the respondent. Economic insecurity: difficulties to make ends meet from total household´s income currently and during the next 12 months; frequency of how often a meal is skipped because there is not enough money for food. Social trust (people can be trusted vs. can´t be too careful in dealing with people). Background questions: Objective social mobility: father’s and mother´s employment relationship in respondent´s youth; main occupation of father and mother in respondent´s youth. Optional variables: Lay explanations of inequality (workers would not bother to get skills and qualifications unless they were paid extra for having them, large differences in income are necessary for country´s prosperity, inequality continues because it benefits the rich and powerful, inequality continues to exist because ordinary people don´t join together to get rid of it). Perceptions of global inequality: rating of differences in wealth between rich and poor countries as fair or unfair. Objective social mobility: father´s and mother´s type of job when the respondent was (14-15-16) years; type of job the respondent has now in his current or last job; type of job the spouse/ partner has now in the current or last job. Demography: sex; year of birth; age; years of full-time schooling; highest completed degree of education (country-specific); highest completed degree of education (derived from country specific degree); work: currently, formerly, or never in paid work; hours worked weekly; employment relationship; supervision of other employees; number of other employees supervised; type of organisation (for profit/ non-profit, public/ private); occupation (ISCO 2008); main status; living in steady partnership; trade union membership; religious affiliation (country-specific); groups of religious affiliation (derived from country specific religion); frequency of attendance of religious services; top-bottom self-placement; participation in the last general election; party the respondent voted for in the last general election (country-specific); left-right placement of party the respondent voted for in last general election by expert judgment on party positions; self-assessed affiliation with one or two particular ethnic groups (country-specific); number of persons in the household (household size); household composition: number of adults in the household; number of children above school entry age in the household; number of children below school age in the household; personal income (country-specific); household income (country-specific); legal partnership status; migration background: father´s country of birth; mother´s country of birth; place of living: urban - rural; region (country-specific). Information on spouse/partner: work: currently, formerly, or never in paid work; hours worked weekly; employment relationship; supervision of other employees; occupation (ISCO 2008); main status. Additionally coded: Respondent ID; case substitution flag; flag variable indicating partially completed cases; date of interview (year, month, day); language of the interview; weight; administration mode of data-collection; country (ISO 3166); country/ sample (ISO 3166); country (Prefix ISO 3166).
Categories Categories
  • Social Policy
  • Society, Culture
  • Equality, inequality and social exclusion
  • Social and occupational mobility
Old Topics Old Topics
  • 13.5 Equality and inequality
  • 13.10 Social and occupational mobility


Geographic Coverage
  • Switzerland (CH)
  • Chile (CL)
  • Czech Republic (CZ)
  • Germany (DE)
  • Denmark (DK)
  • Finland (FI)
  • Croatia (HR)
  • Italy (IT)
  • Japan (JP)
  • New Zealand (NZ)
  • Philippines (PH)
  • Russian Federation (RU)
  • Slovenia (SI)
  • Thailand (TH)
  • South Africa (ZA)
UniversePersons aged 18 years and older Exception: Denmark (18-79), Finland (15-74) and South Africa (from 16 years upwards)
Analysis Unit Analysis Unit
  • Individual
Sampling Procedure Sampling Procedure
  • Probability: Simple random
  • Probability: Multistage
Mode of Collection Mode of Collection
  • Self-administered questionnaire: Paper
  • Self-administered questionnaire: Web-based (CAWI)
  • Face-to-face interview: Computer-assisted (CAPI/CAMI)
  • Web-based interview
  • Telephone interview
  • Face-to-face interview: Paper-and-pencil (PAPI)
Time Method Time Method
  • Cross-section
Kind of Data Kind of Data
  • Numeric
Data CollectorFORS, c/o University of Lausanne, Switzerland; CADEM, Santiago de Chile, Chile; SC&C, s r. o., Czech Republic; Kantar Public, Germany; Danmarks Statistik, Copenhagen, Denmark; Statistics Finland, Helsinki, Finland; Valicon, Zagreb, Croatia; BVA Doxa, Milan, Italy; Central Research Services, Tokyo, Japan; Centre of Methods and Policy Application in the Social Sciences (COMPASS), The University of Auckland, New Zealand; Social Weather Stations, Quezon City, Philippines; Levada Center, Moscow, Russia; Public Opinion and Mass Communication Research Centre, University of Ljubljana, Slovenia; King Prajadhipok’s Institute, Bangkok, Thailand; Human Sciences Research Council (HSRC), Pretoria, South Africa;
Date of Collection
  • 04.02.2019 - 31.07.2019 (Switzerland)
  • 26.04.2019 - 03.06.2019 (Chile)
  • 25.04.2019 - 14.07.2019 (Czech Republic)
  • 30.07.2020 - 30.09.2020 (Germany)
  • 08.10.2019 - 02.12.2019 (Denmark)
  • 13.09.2019 - 31.12.2019 (Finland)
  • 11.05.2019 - 18.06.2019 (Croatia)
  • 07.10.2019 - 18.12.2019 (Italy)
  • 16.11.2019 - 24.11.2019 (Japan)
  • 28.01.2020 - 03.10.2020 (New Zealand)
  • 27.04.2019 - 11.05.2019 (Philippines)
  • 25.01.2019 - 31.01.2019 (Russia)
  • 01.10.2019 - 24.01.2020 (Slovenia)
  • 02.06.2019 - 30.07.2019 (Thailand)
  • 20.11.2018 - 10.04.2019 (South Africa)

Errata & Versions

VersionDate, Name, DOI
1.0.0 (current version)2021-3-26 first archive edition
Errata in current version
2021-9-20v49 / Q15b Type of society [COUNTRY] ought to be like - Denmark: Data errorA data user alerted us to a problem in the variable v49 for Denmark. The PI from Denmark confirmed that v49 is erroneous and provided a corrected version for v49. Please contact the ISSP Service ( for receiving this update.
Version changes

Further Remarks

NotesNumber of respondents for each country, first release: Switzerland: 3042; Chile: 1374; Czech Republic: 1924; Germany: 1325; Denmark: 1038; Finland: 966; Croatia: 1000; Italy: 1215; Japan: 1473; New Zealand: 1210; Philippines: 4250; Russia: 1597; Slovenia: 1164; Thailand: 1533; South Africa: 2736
Number of Units: 25847
Number of Variables: 244
Analysis System(s): SPSS, Stata


Relevant full texts
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Research Data Centre
  •  International Social Survey Programme (ISSP)
    The International Social Survey Programme (ISSP) is a continuing annual program of cross-national survey collaboration, covering a wide range of topics important for social science research. Since 1985 the ISSP provides international data sets, enabling cross-cultural and cross-temporal research.
  • ISSP - Module Topic: Social Inequality
    ‘Social Inequality’ is one of the eleven ISSP topic modules. Central themes are issues, such as attitudes towards income inequality, views on earnings and incomes, legitimation of inequality, career advancement by means of family background and networks, social cleavages and conflict among groups, and the current and past social position.